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Pronunciation in B.E. Pronunciation in A.E.   35

Chance, last, past [tIa:ns, la:st, pa:st] [ chains, laest, paest]

Duke, suit [dju:k, sju:t } [ du:k, su:t ]

Doctor, stop, pot [dkta, ] [d^kt ,st^p , p^t]

Butter, atom [b^t, aetm] [ b^ d , aed m]

Plenty, twenti [plenti, twenti] [pleni, tweni]

Clerk [ kl: k] [kla:k]

Either, neither ( A.E.- [i:], B.E.- [ai]), advertisement (A.E.-[ai], B.E.-[:]tomato- B.E.{a:},A.E.{ei}; process-B.E.{u}, A.E.{a}; candidate(, A.E.[ei] B.E.[I]).

It is necessary to keep in mind, that pronunciation and intonation may be different in different American dialects. The major dialect areas, recognized in American English are Eastern New England, Western or Middle American, and Southern Americans can easily identify a man as a New Englander or a Southerner after hearing him say a few words. There are people who believe that the New England variety is a truly cultural form of speech, and there are many Southerners who are quite sure that their way of speaking is the American best.

The speech of New England (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont) is characterized by the retention of rounded vowel in words like hot and path and flata. The Connecticut River is an important regional dialect boundary, separating the r-lessdialect of Boston from the other regions. Southern dialect is characterized by the loss of rfinally before the consonants and by the unrounded vowel (as in father, grass, dance, path). Instead of diphthong [aw]southerners pronounce sound [a]house, South, out. Many speakers insert glide in Tuesday [tyua-] and make no distinction between vowels in pin/pen.Final consonant cluster reduction occurs in words like last and kept (these are pronounced something like lass and kep). People in the southern states speak with a drawl - they tend to speak slowly and lengthen the last sound of each word. They use contracted Yall for You all, expressions like Howdy, yall for Hello, everybody. President Clinton, from Arkansas, had a southern accent.

In New York City, especially in the boroughs outside Manhattan, many people speak so- called New Yorkese. Speakers of New Yorkese often speak very fast and tend not to pronounce r in words that end in er. A word like water sounds like wata. The presence or absence of r has become class marker. The pronunciation of curl as coil and bird as boid is characteristic of working-class speech.

The language which teenagers often like to use is strongly influenced by popular music and fashion. The immediate examples: Yinz, yunz, youuns (plural you): Hey yoy, gues; My peoples = my parents; I were = I was; I didn have no money; there aint no sense= there is no sense; gotem=got them; gimme=give me; I aint got= I havent got; oughtta=ought to; nigger gal= black girl; Whaddaya think shes talkin about? (What do you think shes talking about?), wysi-wyg (what you see is what you get)

Black American or Afro-American Speech has also some peculiarities. One theory holds that this variety of American English developed from so-called pidgin English the language first used by black slaves of different African languages forced to communicate with each other and their owners. Another view holds that Black English results from the retention of British English features that have not been retained in other varieties of American English.

 :Punctuation  :B.E. A.E. B.E.
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