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CD-ROM drives— дисководы CD-ROM  Просмотрен 80

digitized— в цифровом виде

graphics— графика

temporary— временный

output hardware — устройства отображения инфор­мации

printer — печатающее устройство, принтер

scanner — сканирующее устройство, сканер

modem — модем

purpose — цель

to connect — соединять

to provide — обеспечивать

to affect — влиять

amount — количество

General understanding (Общее понимание текста):

What is the Webster's dictionary definition of the
hardware?

1. What groups of hardware exist?

2. What is input hardware? What are the examples

of input hardware?

4. What is the mouse designed for?

5. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory used in a PC?

6. What is a storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?

7. What is modem used for? Can a PC user communicate with other people without a modem?

Задание 15.7.Какие из приведенных ниже утвер­ждений верны/неверны? Аргументируйте свой ответ, опираясь на текст.

1. The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert them into a form suitable for computer processing.

2. Scanner is used to input graphics only.

3. CPU reads and interprets software and prints results on paper.

4. User is unable to change the contents of ROM.

5. Printer is a processing hardware because it shows the information.

6. Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.

7. The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data.

Задание 15.8.Дайте определения, используя текст.

1)CPU

2) ROM

3) Floppy-disk

4) CD-ROM

5) Printer

6) Modem

7) Hard disk

8) Keyboard

Задание 15.9. Что изнижеперечисленного является оборудованием? 1. program

1. mouse

2. CPU

3. printer

4. modem

5.

instruction

6. cursor or the pointer

7. keyboard

8. symbol

Задание 15.10.Прочитайте и переведите текст. WINDOWS 98

Windows 98 is an operational system based on the ex­panding" windows principlewhich uses iconsto graphi­cally representfiles. It's very easy to use Internet if you have Windows 98 on your computer.

Windows 98 makes the way you and your computer interactwith Internet more easy. Most everyday tasks are easier to do than before. For example, the second mouse button has become a powerful weapon.Recycle Bin makes it easier to recover accidentally deleted files.Your computer probably will crash less with Windows 98. Microsoft says that it is moving forward to the time when we will all think more about our data and less about the programs used to create them.

Window 98 plug"-and-play capability makes it easy to upgrade your computer hardware. A new Windows 98 shortcuts capabilitymakes it easy to reach frequentlyused files.

Working vocabulary (В ваш словарь):

expanding" windows principle— принцип расширя­ющихся окон

icons— иконки

represent— представлять

to interact— взаимодействовать

weapon— оружие

Recycle Bin— корзина

to recover— восстановить

deleted files— удаленные файлы

tocrash — зависать, давать сбои

plug-n-play— подключай и работай

upgrade- апгрейд (увеличение возможностей ком­пьютера)

support— поддержка I

necessity — необходимость to move forward— двигаться вперед shortcut capability- возможность нахождения кратчайшего пути frequently — часто

COMPUTER OPERATIONS. TYPES OF DATA

Much of the processing computers can be divided into two general types of operation. Arithmetic operations are computations with numbers such as addition, sub­traction, and other mathematical procedures. Early com­puters performed mostly arithmetic operations, which gave the false impression that only engineers and scien­tists could benefit from computers. Of equal importance is the computers ability to compare two values to deter­mine if one is larger than, smaller than, or equal to the other. This is called a logical operation. The comparison may take place between numbers, letters, sounds, or even drawings. The processing of the computer is based on the computer's ability to perform logical and arithmetic op­erations.

Instructions must be given to the computer to tell it how to process the data it receives and the format needed for output and storage. The ability to follow the program sets computers apart from most tools. However, new tools ranging from typewriters to microwave ovens have em­bedded computers, or built-in computers. An embedded computer can accept data to use several options in it's program, but the program itself cannot be changed.

This makes these devices flexible and convenient but not the embedded computers itself.

Types of data

With the advent of new computer applications and hardware, the definition of data has expanded to include many types.

Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points, as well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and logical operations are per­formed on numeric data. This means that numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.

Text, or textual data, can contain any combination of letters, numbers and special characters. Sometimes tex­tual data is known as alphanumeric data.

Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even human voice. It can also accept audio-information as an input. Data can also take form of draw­ings and video sequences.

Physical data is captured from the environment. For example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data. In many large buildings, com­puter systems process several kinds of physical data to regulate operations. Computers can set off security alarms, control temperature and humidity, or turn lights on and off, all in response to physical data. These applications increase people's safety and save the time and money.

Working vocabulary (В ваш словарь):

data — данные

to divide — делить

to compute — вычислять

computation— вычисление

arithmetic operation— арифметическая операция

logical operation— логическая операция

addition— сложение

subtraction— вычитание

false— ложный

to benefit— получать пользу

equal— равный

to determine— определять

to compare— сравнивать

comparison— сравнение

value— величина

tool— инструмент

microwave oven— микроволновая печь

embedded-встроенный

accept— принимать

flexible— гибкий, изменчивый

advent— приход

to expand— расширять

sequence— последовательность

increase— увеличивать

decimal point— десятичная точка

save— спасать, зд. экономить

General understanding

1) In what two major parts could be computer opera­
tions divided?

2) What are arithmetic operations?

3) What are logical operations?

4) Can computer compare two graphical objects?

5) What makes computer so different from other tools?

6) What is embedded computer? What modern devic-" es have embedded computers?

7) How many are types of data?

8) What is physical data?

Задание 16.1.Какие из приведенных ниже утвер­ждений верны/неверны. Аргументируйте свой ответ, опираясь на текст.

1)Arithmetic operations are operations with num­bers — subtraction and division.

2) Early computers gave false impression about their capabilities.

3) Logical operations are computer's ability to com­pare two values.

4) The major difference between the computer and tools lies in the flexibility of the program.

5) Embedded computers are found only in typewrit­ers and ovens.

6) Microwave oven's program is flexible and could be changed because of the embedded computer.

7) Numeric data consist of numbers, decimal points and the (+) and (-) signs.

8) Computer can accept human speech as an audio-vis­ual input data.

Задание 16.2.Дайте определение, используя сло­варь:

1)Software

2) Arithmetic operation

3) Logical operation

4) Numeric data

5) Textual data

6) Physical data

7) Audio-visual data

Задание 16.3.Заполните пропуски:

1) ... are computations with numbers such as addition, subtraction, and other mathematical procedures.

2) The computers ability to compare two values to de­termine if one is larger than, smaller than, or equal to the other is called a...

 

1) New tools ranging from typewriters to microwave ovens have embedded computers, or ... computers

2) An ... can accept data to use several options in it's program, but the program itself cannot be changed.

3) ... can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.

4) ... can contain any combination of letters, numbers and special characters.

5) Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up... which is captured from the environment.

a) logical operation

b)Text, or textual data

c) audio-visual data

d)Physical data

e) Arithmetic operations

f) Built-in

g) numbers

Types of Software

A computer to complete a job requires mare than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the opera­tion of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a gener­al-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are per­formed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: sys­tem software and applicationssoftware.

System softwarecontrols standard internal compu­ter activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the systems programs is booted or loaded into the com­puters memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system soft­ware is loaded, the applications software can start to work.

System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and co­ordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate his or her peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in ad­vance about the driver program which, though, common­ly go along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly at­tached part.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the pro­ductivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include all kinds of gimmicks in one program to make software in­terface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software.

Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stim­ulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.

Working vocabulary

to direct — управлять

to conduct — проводить

to complete — завершать

equipment — оборудование

internal — внутренний

to require — требовать

control — управление

specific — конкретный, опредленный

general-purpose — многоцелевой

aid — помощь

regard — отношение

regardless — безотносительно, несмотря на

memory capacity — вместимость памяти

to install — устанвливать, встраивать, инсталлиро­вать

to transfer — переводить, переносить

to provide with — обеспечивать чем-либо

to secure — обеспечивать безопасность

security — безопасность

to develop — развивать, проявлять

developer — разработчик

to check — проверять

attach — присоединять

Web-browser — «броузер» (программа, Позволяю­щая пользователю искать.и считывать информацию с глобальной электронной сети Internet)

peripheral — периферийный

to boot — запускать

to handle — управлять

gimmick — зд. приманка

General understanding (Общее понимание текста):

1) What is a software?

2) In what two basic groups software (programs) could be divided?

3) What is system software for?

4) What is an operating system — system or applica­tion software?

5) What is a «driver»?

6) What is application software?

7) What are application software for?

8) What is the tendency in application software mar ket in recent years?

9) What is the application of the communication sof t ware?

Задание 16.4. Что из перечисленного является про­граммным обеспечением?

1) Program

2) Mouse

3) CPU

4) Word processor

5) Modem

6) Web-browser

7) Operating system

8) Scanner

9) Developer

10) Equipment

Задание 16.5. Какие из приведенных ниже утвер­ждений верны/неверны? Аргументируйте свой ответ, опираясь на текст.

1) Computer programs only instruct the hardware how to handle data storage.

2) System software controls internal computer activ­ities.

3) System software is very dependable on the type of application software being used.

4) The information about memory capacity, the mod­el of the processor and disk drives is unavailable for sys­tem software.

5) The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for Floppy-disk driving.

6) It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece of hardware.

7) Software developers tend to make their products very small and with poor interface to save computer re­ sources.

8) Communication software is of great need now be­ cause of the new advances in communication technolo­gies.

9) Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.

10) Web-browsers is the class of software for electron­ic communication through the network.

Задание 16.6.Найдите эквиваленты в тексте:

1)Программное обеспечение определяет порядок выполнения операций.

2) Прикладные программы выполняют поставлен­ную вами конкретную задачу (удовлетворяют вашу потребность).

3) Этот класс программ самый многочисленный и перспективный с точки зрения маркетинга.

4) Системные программы предназначены для кон­кретных устройств компьютерной системы.

5) Устанавливая драйвер, вы «учите» систему «по­нимать» вновь присоединенное устройство.

6) Когда компьютер впервые включается, одна из системных программ должна быть загружена в его память,

7) Развитие систем электронной коммуникации за последние пять лет стимулировала много к производ­ству соответствующих программных продуктов возра­стающим числом компаний-разработчиков.

Задание 16.7.Дайте определение, используя сло­варь:

1) Software

2) Driver

3) Application software

4) Operating system

5) Communication software

6) Computer

7) Peripheral device

8) Operating system

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