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Introduction in biochemistry. Biochemistry and medicine. Safety measures in a biochemical laboratory  Просмотрен 36

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Lesson 1. Introduction in biochemistry. Biochemistry and medicine. Safety measures in a biochemical laboratory.

Biochemistry and medicine. Significance of biochemistry for doctors.

Crimean biochemical school.

 

Biochemistry is a science of living organisms and life processes. It is the special system of principles of interaction of molecules, determined as the molecular logic of life. These principles are a set of relationships characterizing the nature, function, and interactions of biomolecules and the organism as a whole.

Biochemistry is dealing with the analysis of the chemical basis of the most significant biological processes and the further channels and principles of the substance and energy transformation, constituting the foundation of diversified expressions of life. The main goal of Biochemistry is the establishment of the connection between the molecular structure and the biological function of the living creatures’ chemical components.Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering are considered the most significant and prerogative in the field of fundamental scientific research. Such research makes it possible to manufacture certain medications, such as hormones, enzymes, vaccines, interferon, etc. New technology provides opportunities for solving numerous medical problems (prenatal diagnostics, genotherapy, etc). Biochemistry carries tremendous importance for Medicine. Thanks to biochemical research new methods became available in the field of health preventive medicine, diagnostics, treatment of various diseases, synthesis of medications, as well as learning of the development of the pathological changes on the molecular level. That makes it necessary for a doctor to possess knowledge of Biochemistry.Biochemistry Department of CSMU has been established in 1932.

The creation and development of the Crimea Biochemical school is connected with the name of Ukrainian Science Academy Member-Correspondent, Professor German Vasilyevich Troitsky, who was in Charge of the Department from 1951 till 1988. In 1951 he was started the works of the structural changes of blood serum proteins at a pathology. Under the direction of the Professor G. V. Troitsky for the first time in Europe the spectropolarimeter was constructed, and for the first time in the world the presence of b-sheets in globular proteins was conformed. The fact of structural changes of the blood albumin was researched, that has a great diagnostic and prognostic importance. A new scientific direction in biological chemistry – "pathological anatomy of protein" was based. As a result of the accumulated data a theory of early organism protection – Pre-immune Defense was created.The investigations of G.V. Troitsky now are continuing by professors G.V. Kobozev, O.G. Kosik, K.A.Efetov, assistant professors G. G.Golovskaya, K.D. Maly, and others.
At the Department a unique method of Izoelectric Focusing in Borat-poliol Systems has been elaborated. It was used during the space experiments onboard the orbital complex "Salut-7", "Salut-T-5: and "Soyus-T-7" within the program "Tavria", resulting in obtaining extra clean substances in the state of weightlessness.In 1986 the Hybridoma Laboratory was created at the department and production of monoclonal antibodies against of the given antigens was organized. The monoclonal antibodies to human immunoglobulins of different classes, subclasses, their chains and fragments were obtained. At present time they help in the diagnostics of paraproteinemic hemoblactoses. Now Honored Worker of Science and Technique of Ukraine Professor Konstantin Alexandrovich Efetov is the head of the Department and the Laboratory of Biotechnology (including Hybridoma Laboratory). Under his leadership the investigations of human immunoglobulins modification at norm and pathology (i. e. at malignant tumours) are carried out. The new approach to study of human molecules was provided: examination of interaction of immunoglobulins with different ligands (with the help of monoclonal antibodies). The peptides and proteins of insects can be used as ligands, the monoclonal antibodies against them are received at the department. Professor K. A. Efetov for the first time has proposed to use the monoclonal antibodies obtained by hybridoma technology for the solution of problems of evolution biology and biosystematics. This new scientific direction is named "monoclonal immunosystematics".Nowadays the prerogative fields of research at the Department of Biochemistry are:- study of blood serum proteins modifications at different pathology;- obtaining of monoclonal antibodies to given antigens and elaboration of methods for detection of pathological modification of human proteins, which can be used with the diagnostic and prognostic purposes;- usage of biochemical methods and methods of molecular biology in a complex with the traditional approaches for the solution of problems of a evolution biology and biosystematicsThe scientific works of the Biochemistry Department have received broad international recognition: they more than 400 times are quoted by the scientists from 20 countries in 8 languages. About 650 scientific works (including 11 monographs and 20 patents) have been published.

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