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BILL GATES – THE RICHEST MAN IN THE WORLD  Просмотрен 9

1. Everyone has heard of Bill Gates, the icon of American business and the richest man in the world. Microsoft, the business he started with a friend in 1975 has become the world's largest computer software company. Bill Gates was born on the 28th of October, 1955, in Seattle, USA. Seattle was once famous for producing Boeing aircraft, but is now better known as the home of Microsoft. From his parents Bill got a good business sense and a quick mind. At 13 he got interested in computers. Bill Gates and his friend Paul Allen spent all their time writing programmes and learning about computers.

2. After finishing school in 1973 Bill went to Harvard, America’s most famous university. Most of the time he worked on the computers in the university laboratory. The next year, he and Paul Allen wrote an operating programme for the Altair, one of the world's first microcomputers. The two friends started Microsoft in 1975 andvery soon it became a big success. In 1980, Gates bought an operating system called DOS. He made some changes to itand called it MS-DOS. He sold the rights to use the system to IBM. MS-DOS became the standard operating system for all PCs of that time. Microsoft has also developed such well-known programmesas Windows, Excel and Internet Explorer. Bill's dream is to computerise everything – TVs, telephones, lights, even theway you cook dinner.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца текста предложения, содержащие прилагательные и наречие в одной из степеней сравнения.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 2-ой абзац текста. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:

 

Which operating system (programme), developed by Bill Gates, was the first to come onto the market?

1. ...an operating system called MS-DOS.

2. ...an operating system called Windows.

3. ...an operating programme for the Altair, one of the world's first microcomputers.

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (цепочка существительных) и стоящих перед существительным (левое определение).

 

1.

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data.

2. The monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programmes.

3. Software is the final computer system component.

 

Упражнение № 2. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык разных степеней сравнения прилагательных и наречий.

 

1. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another.

2. We structure our computers from several processors, arrange them so that the greater the number of the processors, the faster the supercomputer.

3. The new computer programme was much longer than the previous one, but as reliable as possible.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык слов it, one, (ones), that, these, those в разных значениях.

 

1. It was Norbert Weiner who was recognized as the father of cybernetics.

2. One should remember about timing problem with execution an instruction.

3. That computer is more efficient than the old one.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глаголов, укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения.

 

1. After the computer had received the data it began to process the information.

2. Bill Gates made some changes to DOS-operating system and renamed it MS-DOS.

3. The input unit had made possible communication between human beings and the computer.

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные грамматические значения и функции глаголов should и would.

 

1. We have to continue developing automatic control for industry, business, education and scientific research.

2. A smart robot should be able to think, sense and move any material part or device through variable programmed motions.

3. The device may be used to process information.

4. Some operations for this computer should be changed and new instructions should be added.

5. If something should go wrong with the computer, you could lose the results of your work.

 

Упражнение № 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

INTEL OPENS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER

1. Intel, the world's leading microprocessor producer, has opened a research and development centre in St. Petersburg.

The new centre will boost the city's economy and help Russia to promote the computer technology. The St. Petersburg centre will play a key role in developing the basic building blocks of 'Management Runtime Environment' technology. The applications will help to run faster and more efficiently, and higher quality software will be developed much faster.

2. The market in Russia and St. Petersburg continues to grow andsmart people are needed to serve this market and better help it. For these reasons Intel decided to open a lab here. All the lab employers were subcontracted from St. Petersburg Elbrus, a leader in computer technology research. In St. Petersburg 5000 students start studying computer programming every year. The city has a very big potential and is home to some of the best computer engineers in the world. This project is very good for Russia because this actually means that local talented engineers can stay on, be employed by one of the biggest, world-class companies. They can apply their knowledge, be used and also they can earndecent salaries.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца текста предложения, содержащие прилагательные в одной из степеней сравнения.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 2-ой абзац текста. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос.

 

Why did Intel decide to open the centre in St. Petersburg?

1. The company needs to develop new product.

2. The company wants to pay high salaries toSt, Petersburg computer engineers.

3. The company needs the new computer market and smart people to serve it.

 

ВАРИАНТ 5

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский определений, выраженных именем существительным (цепочка существительных) и стоящих перед существительным (левое определение).

 

1. Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by the system software.

2. A high level language is a language in which each instruction or statement correspond to several machine code instructions.

3. Hybrid computers combine the desirable speed and flexibility characteristics of general and specific purpose computers.

 

Упражнение № 2.

Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык разных степеней сравнения прилагательных и наречий.

 

1. Windows makes running most application programs much easier.

2. One of the newest, most innovative areas of computer application is Computer-Aided Design and Drafting.

3. The longer and more sophisticated microcomputer programs become, the more impractical it is to code themin low level languages.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их. Обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык слов it, one (ones), that, these, those в разных значениях.

 

1. It is an input unit that accepts information from outside the computer.

2. One knows that debugging still remains one of the most difficult and unsatisfactory operations.

3. It is obvious, that the efficiency of the old apparatus is low compared with that of the new one.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глаголов, укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения.

 

1. The computer stores the information in the registers.

 

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The system must be able to recognize speaker's instructions from speech patterns.

2. An addition arithmetic logic unit had to be incorporated to handle portions of the address.

3. These operations may be performed on numbers or words.

4. One should be careful when writing a computer program.

5. We supposed they would use other kind of memory for solving the task.

 

Упражнение № 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

The age of automatic

1. We live in the age of great developments in science and engineering. More than two hundred years ago the invention of the textile machinery started the industrial revolution. In less than a century machines were used in all the branches of industry. They made all kinds of operations of a factory worker much better, much faster and at a lower cost than factory workers did. Thus the first industrial revolution freed man's hands from hard and monotonous labour.

In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation The term automation means performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

2. Automated manufacturing had several steps in the development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency. Introduction of microprocessors and computers gave rise to automation technology. The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices canoperate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic mints, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца текста предложения, содержащие прилагательные и наречия в одной из степеней сравнения.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 2-ой абзац текста. Из приведённых вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос.

 

What was the first step in the development of automation?

1. …the introduction of microprocessors;

2. …. the introduction of computer;

3. …mechanization of manufacturing operations.

 

Контрольное задание № 2

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить задание № 2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Видовременные формы глагола:

пассивный залог - формы Simple (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

2. Простые неличные формы глаголов:

Participle 1 (Present Participle), Participle 11 (Past Participle) в функции определения, обстоятельства, части глагольного времени;

3. Простые неличные формы глаголов:

Gerund – герундий, простые формы. Функции в предложении.

Инфинитив и его формы: Simple Infinitive (Active и Passive) в функции: а) подлежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели. Перевод инфинитива.

 

Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.

Образец выполнения № 1 (к упр. № 1), см. таблицу № 7

1. This article was discussed at the conference by the students. Эта статья была обсуждена на конференции студентами.
   
2. I was told about it only yesterday. Мне рассказали об этом только вчера.
was told – Past Simple, passive от глагола to speak to tell.    
3. The new discovery is much spoken about. Об этом новом открытии много говорят.
is spoken about – Present Simple Passive от глагола to speak (about.)  

Образец выполнения № 2 (к упр. № 2), см. таблицу № 11

1. The student reading a newspaper is my friend. Cтудент, читающий газету, мой друг.
reading – Participle 1 от глагола to read, в функции определения.    
2. (While) reading this article we learned many new facts. Читая эту статью, мы узнали много новых фактов.
(while) reading – Participle 1 от глагола to read, в функции обстоятельства.    
3. The letter was written by my brother. Письмо было написано моим братом.
written – Participle 1 от глагола to write. Входит в состав сложной глагольной формы для образования Past Simple Passive.  

 

Образец выполнения № 3 (к упр. № 3), см. таблицу № 12

1. Reading books is useful. Читать книги полезно.
reading – Gerund от глагола to read в функции подлежащего.    
2. We enrich our knowledge by reading books. Мы обогащаем наши знания, читая книги (с помощью чтения книг).
reading – Gerund от глагола to read в функции обстоятельства.  

 

Образец выполнения № 4 (к Упр. № 4) см. ТАБЛИЦУ № 13.

1. He was to come at 5. Он должен придти в 5 часов.
to come – Simple Infinitive Active в составе сложного сказуемого после модального глагола.  
2. Here is the letter to be sent at once. Вот письмо, которое надо отправить немедленно.
to be sent – Simple Infinitive Passive в функции определения.  
3. He was the first to solve the problem. Он первым решил задачу.
to solve the problem – Simple Infinitive Active в роле определения после выражения “the first”.  

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глагола. Переведите предложения.

 

1. Today all the computers are broadly classified as special-purpose and general-purpose computers.

2. These computers are being operated by the programmers.

3. The invention of computers was spoken of at the last lecture.

 

 

Упражнение № 2. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них причастия и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. Engineers working on the same project communicate among themselves and share information.

2. Only when combined with a production system, robots will be used as helpers for economic and productivity increase.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. In a computer the memory serves the function of storing instructions, data and results of computation.

2. Logical operations include comparing, selecting, sorting, matching, etc.

3. The control is performed by decoding the contents of Instruction Register.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и укажите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. То solve complex problems is the main purpose of the computers.

2. То solve complex problems we use different computers.

3. The problem to consider is very important.

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

THE RAPID RATE OF TECNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE END USER

1. The first microcomputer was built in 1975. Since that time many models have been introducedwith increasing speeds and capacities. Microcomputers are used at schools, in homes, and in offices. Today sophisticated software is made up of hundreds of thousands of instructions. The advance of technology continues, making the buying decision more complex. It isn't just hardware - new, improved software packages appear on the market almost as soon as users have mastered the prior ones.

2. What's driving this continual march? There is no doubt that users want more powerful, easier-to-use technology. There is also no doubt that computer firms want to turn out more product to generate more profits. So what if users want to stay with what they have now? Staying with the old software is possible. You can still use the software to do what you've always done, but you risk being left behind by the last-moving train of technological advance. No one wants to be left behind, watching everyone else move up to the new technology standards.

3. So there arerisks to standing still. Bat there are also risks to forever riding the wave of technological advance whichcan he expensive. You have to throw out perfectly good hardware and software and purchase the latest available. Your new computing equipment should help you become more productive. But what do you do when the next software or the next microprocessor come out? When should yon upgrade again? Unfortunately, there are no easy answers, just a wide range of options.

Примечания к тексту: riding the wave – быть на гребне.

 

Упражнение №6. Выпишите из 1 -го абзаца текста причастия и укажите, какие функции и предложениях они выполняют.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 3-го абзаца текста герундий, и укажите его функции в предложении.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 2-ой абзац текста и ответьте на вопрос:

 

Does the end user have any risk using old software and hardware?

ВАРИАНТ 2

Упражнение №1. Перепишите предложения; определите залоги временные формы глаголов. Укажите их инфинитивы. Переведите предложения.

 

1. An instruction is a command, which is given to the computer and consists of a verb (an operational code) and a noun (an operand).

2. These devices were used in our laboratory.

3. Modern personal computers are always looked at with interest.

4. By the appointed time all the changes in the control program had been finished.

 

Упражнение № 2. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них причастия и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения .

1. Any operation performed by a computer must be interpreted into a machine code.

2. When controlling automatic production the electronic machine sends the necessary commands to the control panel according to the programme.

3. The control program is a large program occupying thousands of bytes.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The central processing unit contains facilities for addressing main storage, for fetching and storing information, etc.

2. Detecting and correcting any errors is called debugging.

3. After taking special training the workers become highly skilled operators of automatic system.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения, Подчеркните инфинитив и укажите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The new pulp and paper mills are to be equipped with automation control system.

2. The technology to support the development of microprocessor has grown rapidly.

3. Users work with the program interactively to synthesize logic functions and produce functional designs.

 

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

PORTABLE COMPUTERS

1. The first digital computer was built in l946 at the University of Pennsylvania. In its early days it required 18.500 vacuum tubes, storing information. Obviously, a 30-ton computer had its limitations. Scientists and engineers had to work hard, making it better. Using transistors as small amplifiers in place of the large vacuum tubes theycould reduce the size and cost of computers.

2. In the early 1960's the first minicomputers were sold commercially. The revolution was going on. Less than a decade later, the microcomputer was invented. The basic unit of the microcomputer is a tiny silicon chip, serving different computer functions. Having very small size each chip is able to contain thousands of elements. One of the latest development is bubble memory used for the purpose of storing information in tiny magnetic spots or island. The hold the information without loosing it when the power is turned off.

3. The great advances in microelectronics have helped achieve the moon landing and create highly technological devices. Still the computer revolution is moving on. Portable computers are the latest innovation. In the smallest of the portables the disk drives have been replaced by bubble memory chips. In these computers information can be stored on the road, in the classroom, at conferences, at the library,or elsewhere and later transferred to printer or convention disk drive memory. Hand-held computers are very light in weight and small in size and can be useful for some situations, but there are some drawbacks. The displays are rarely more than a single short line in length, and the keyboard is to small.

 

Упражнение № 6. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца текста причастия и укажите, какие функции в предложении они выполняют.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите и 2-го абзаца текста герундий и укажите его функции.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 3-й абзац текста и ответьте на вопрос:

 

What are the main advantages of hand-held computers?

ВАРИАНТ № 3

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глаголов. Укажите их инфинитивы. Переведите предложения.

 

1. Hardware configuration depends on what computer system is designed for.

2. Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations.

3. The sequence of operations were performed by the computer.

4. This information can be relied upon.

 

 

Упражнение № 2. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них причастия и определите их функцию. Предложения переведите.

 

1. When pressing the keys the operator makes the adding machine operate.

2. Printed circuit boards are getting smaller, but havean increasing number of complex integrated circuits.

3. Bits are typically grouped in units called bytes.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The task of improving memory device is of great importance.

2. She insisted on carrying out the experiment.

3. Compiling a program requires great attention of a programmer.

 

Упражнение №4. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и укажите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. То design an efficient control system is quite a difficult task.

2. The experiments to be carried out will be very important.

3. A program for a computer is an exact sequence of instructions that it uses to solve a problem.

 

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

WHY NOT BUY COMPUTER?

1. The first microcomputer was built in 1985. Since that time many models have been introduced with increasing speeds and capacities. New areas are developing in the fifth generation, including artificial intelligence, expert systems and natural languages. The PC is known for its flexibility and ability to manipulate data. The variety of choices being offeredmakes the buying decision more complex, however, and you have to know enough about microcomputers to make an intelligent choice. A microcomputer system is a significant investment. While purchasing one you should think seriously about what you want to do.

2. But even knowing what you want to do with the computer, how do you find out what fits your needs? Experience is best; possibilities include your school's computer, friends who can give you advice, computer rental agencies, and computer dealers. You should do some research; popular computer magazines provide a lot of information, including reviews of software and hardware. Ultimately, the most important factor in buying computer is making sure it will be able to handle the job(s) you have in mind.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 1 -го абзаца текста причастия и укажите их в предложении.

 

Упражнение №8. Прочитайте 2 -ой абзац текста и ответьте на вопрос:

 

What should you do when buying a computer?

Вариант 4.

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глаголов. Укажите их инфинитивы. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The PC hardware has been upgraded.

2. The experiments on the new microcomputer were being carried out during the whole month.

3. The information was received by the input of the computer.

4. The development of MS-DOS was followed by Microsoft Windows.

 

Упражнение №2. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них причастия и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The operator pressing the keys makes the calculator operate.

2. Discussing the advantages of the new memory unit the professor gave the students all the necessary explanations.

3. The time required to transmit one computer word out of the memory to where it will be used is called the memory access time.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. After compiling the instruction the Program Counter selects a new one.

2. He is responsible for writing the computer program.

3. Selecting one type over the other isalmost a choice between the cost of the machine and computational speed.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и укажите его функции. Переведите предложения.

 

1. То make possible communication from a human being and a computer is the main purpose of the input unit.

2. Information has to be in the form of digits or characters for a digital computer.

3. The input to be described here is a newdevice.

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

SOME MORE FACTS ABOUT COMPUTERS

1. The history of computing covers less than two hundred years. The early years from 1830-1950 were considered its infancy. Charles Babbage invented the difference and the analytical engine. The difference engine was used in finding errors in handwritten tables. The analytical engine was designed for mathematical computations. This machine had five features found in today' computer hardware: there must be input, processing, output, controlling andstorage devices.

2. The vacuum tube was used as primary computer component during the first generation of computers. Punched cards and magnetic tape were used for secondary storage. The second generation computers were significantly improved with the transistor. The integrated circuit replaced the transistors in the third generation computers. The fourth generation introduced the microprocessor on a chip. The semiconductor chip is made of a crystalline substance conducting electricity. When introduced the chip greatly influenced the computer technology. The fifth generation has arrived recently. New areas are developing in this generation, including artificial intelligence, expert systems and natural languages.

3. A wide variety of computers are used today, but they can be broadly classified as special and general-purpose computers. You should know the difference. Special-purpose computers are able to accept only certain types of input and present a narrow range of outputs. The most common kind of general-purpose computer in use today is the personal computer or microcomputer. It gets the name microcomputer from the tiny electronic device, called the microprocessor, that does the actual processing.

 

Упражнение № 6. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца текста герундий и укажите его функции.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 2-го абзаца текста причастия и укажите их функции.

 

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 3-ий абзац текста и ответьте на вопрос:

 

Does the personal computer belong to special-purpose or general-purpose computers?

Вариант 5

Упражнение № 1. Перепишите предложения, определите в них залог и временные формы глагола. Укажите их инфинитивы. Переведите предложения.

 

1. These digits are easily multiplied.

2. The first microcomputer was built in 1975.

3. The feedback principle had been used in all automatic control mechanisms for centuries.

4. This computer program can’t be relied on, it is not reliable.

 

Упражнение 2. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них причастия и определите их функции. Предложения переведите.

 

1. During the last years integrated circuit technology is especially impressive, when viewed in terms of cost decrease.

2. Signals given to measuring instruments and controlling devices are introduced into the electronic machine.

3. A designer was drawing the project. using СAD system.

 

Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий и определите его функцию. Предложения переведите.

 

1. His repairing the computer thoroughly is quite natural as he is a skilled specialist.

2. No advantage was gained by using this method of control.

3. The memory of the microprocessors system serves the purpose of holding information.

 

Упражнение № 4. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и укажите его функцию. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The information address tellswhere the result is to be put.

1. Information to be computed is stored usuallyin registers units of hardware.

2. To create the model the interactive terminal screen is usually divided into sections showing various views of the model.

 

Упражнение № 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

COMPUTERS AND HACKERS

1. In the twenty-first century the computer technology is greatly developing. It would be really difficult to imagine life without computers. They are a source of information, education and entertainment. But today's world of computer can also be quite frightening and dangerous. This is because of people who use computers for illegal purposes. They are called hackers. So you should be very careful when working with computer information.

2. Hackers spend their time playing with computer data in all parts of cyberspace. Much of what they do is not dangerous, but sometimes their activities break the law, for example, when they break into websites, take control of computer or create viruses. They are especially interested in breaking through the security of military websites. Hackers know how to trick people just using their programmes. They use a 'Trojan Horse', a programme that looks perfectly safe, but actually contains something destructive. The only way of not getting into trouble is not to open it.

3. Although they can get serious punishment if they are caught, most hackers still think that what they do is a game. They often meet at festivals, taking part in discussions, sharing experience, meeting other hackers and generally having a good time. These meetings are organised in well-known places like Las Vegas or Berlin. Recently, hacking has started to increase. Hackers are getting into computer systems and stealing or destroying information. It is certain that there will he a lot more of this high-tech crime in the twenty-first century.

 

Упражнение № 6. Выпишите из 1-го абзаца причастия и укажите их функции в предложении.

 

Упражнение № 7. Выпишите из 2-го абзаца герундий и укажите его функции.

 

Упражнение № 8. Прочитайте 3-ий абзац текста и ответьте на вопрос:

 

Will the number of hackers change in the future years?

 

 

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ УСТНОГО ПЕРЕВОДА

What is computer?

The term computer is used to describe a device made up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is referred to as hardware. A computer system is a combination of five elements: hardware, software, people, procedures, data/information.

When one computer system is set up to communicate with another computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth element. In other words, the manner in which the various individual systems are connected – for example, by phone lines, microwave transmission, or satellite – is an element of the total computer system.

Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do. People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

The basic job of computer is processing information. Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a programme and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw material while information is organized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information. (1500 п.зн.)

Internet

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching. Due to this technology, if some computers on network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet switching network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network that was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World Wide Web, telnet, Gopher and etc. Having expanded considerably during the 1990s, the World Wide Web enables users easily to examine the Internet sites and now is becoming the leading information service of the Internet. (1550 п. зн.)

 


Automation

Automation is performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.

Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple task in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used, performing all the functions of a transfer machine.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes.

More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers has made possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies.

Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

Automation has also had an influence on the areas of economy other than manufacturing.(2000 п. зн.)

Digital computers

There are two fundamentally different types of computers; analogue and digital. The former type solves problems by using continuously changing data such as voltage. In current usage, the term ‘computer’ usually refers to high-speed digital computers. These computers are playing an increasing role on all branches of the economy.

Digital computers are based on manipulating discrete binary digits (1s and 0s). They are generally more effective than analogue computers for four principal reasons: they are faster; they are not so susceptible to signal interference; they can transfer huge data bases more accurately; and their coded binary data are easier to store and retrieve than the analogue signals.

For all their apparent complexity, digital computers are considered to be simple machines. Digital computers are able to recognize only two states in each of its millions of switches: ‘on’ or ‘off ’, or high voltage or low voltage. By assigning binary numbers to these state, 1 for ‘o’ and 0 for ‘off’, and linking many switches together, a computer can represent any type of data from numbers to letters and musical notes. It is this process of recognizing signals that is known as digitization. The real power of a computer depends on the speed with which it checks switches per second. The more switches a computer checks in each cycle, the more data recognize at one time and the faster it can overate, each switch being called a digit or bit. (1500 п. зн.)

Hardware: input hardware

What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following definition of hardware – the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system. Computer hardware can be divided into four categories: 1. input hardware, 2. processing hardware, 3. storage hardware, 4. output hardware.

The purpose of input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. Input devices let users enter commands, data, or programmes for processing by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The most common input device is a keyboard. Information typed atthe computer keyboard, which is much like a typewriter, is translated into a series of binary numbers the CPU can manipulate. The mouse is another widely used mechanical input device. It is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. To move the cursor on the display screen, the user moves the mouse across the mouse pad. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the top of the mouse once or twice. By pressing the buttons the user signal a menu selection or a command to the computer and activates commands on the screen.

The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and digital camera can be also used to input data into the computer. (1500 п. зн.)


Processing hardware

The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and main memory.

The CPU is the brain of the computer. In addition to performing arithmetic and logic operations on data, it controls the rest of the system. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. Sometimes the CPU consists of several linked microchips, each performing a separate task, but most computers require only a single microchip as the CPU.The design of the CPUaffects the processing power and speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPUin your computer, you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.

The power of computers greatly depends on the characteristics of memory storage devices. Most digital computers store data both internally, in what is called main memory, and externally, on auxiliary storage units. As a computer process data and instructions, it temporarily stores information internally on special memory microchips. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating, loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data.

ROM (read only memory) is non-volatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform, that is, the faster it works. (1900 п. зн.)

 


STORAGE HARDWARE

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when needed for processing. As it has been mentioned, most digital computers store data both internally in what called main memory and externally, on auxiliary storage units or storage hardware. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do filing systems except that it stores data as electronic signals. Storage hardware supplements the main memory when programmes are too large and they also offer a more reliable method for storing data. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk (HDD), floppy disk and СD-ROM, removable magnetic disks being the most widely used.

Hard disk is a rigid built-in disk coated with magnetic material. It is used for storing programs and relatively large amount of data for fast access.

Floppy disk (diskette) – thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size, flexibility and small capacity. 3.5" disks are widely used and formatted 1.44 megabytes, a byte being known as the basic unit of data storage.

СD-ROM (compact disk read only memory) is a compact disk on which a large amount of digitised read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drivers can provide nowadays. (1500 п. зн.)

OUTPUT HARDWARE

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer systems. In other words, getting processed data out of the computer is the job of output devices, which let the user see the results of the computer's data processing. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, texts, graphics, television programs, etc. Being the most commonly used output device, the monitor accepts video signals from a computer and shows different kinds of information on its screen, the monitor being of several types: colour or monochrome flat-panel or picture tube, desktop or portable.

With the help of various printers information stored in one of the computer's memory systems can be easily printed on paper in a desired numbers of copies.

You can also use the modem or any number of specialized output devices.

Modem is an example of communication hardware- an electronic device that makes it possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Four categories of hardware perform four types of tasks relatively: input, processing, storage and output. These four processes together are known to be the computing cycle.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap. (1850 п. зн.)

 

SOFTWARE

A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.

These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and application software. System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operations of a computer regardless of the application software being used. Because the operating system includes basic instructions that are vital to the internal functioning of the computer, it is the first program to be processed after the computer is turned on and it remains in memory until the computer is turned off. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded or booted into the computer memory, the applications software can be brought in.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The most common types of applications software are: word processing software, graphics software, desktop publishing software, spreadsheet software, database management software, communication software. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one programme to make software interface more attractive to the user. These class of programmes is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view. (3000 п. зн.)


 


 

Предыдущая статья:Упражнение № 3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык слов it, one (ones), that, these, those в разных значениях. Следующая статья:ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТАБЛИЦЫ, Многофункциональное слово “one” Таблица №1 Функция и з..
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