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S While, by the time, until, as and like (A-C)   2145

Decide what to say. Use the word in brackets to join the two ideas together.

► Tell Matthew he needs to click on the box. You showed him. (like)
You need to click on the box, like I showed you.

1 Tell Tom that you arrived at his flat, but he'd left, (by the time)

2 Tell your friend that Rita went to the party with Tom. Your friend predicted this, (as)

3 Tell Claire that you saw her sister. You were shopping in London, (while)

4 Tell Vicky she can keep the book. She can finish it. (until)


123 Preposition + noun, e.g. on holiday

A Some useful phrases

on holiday, on business, on a journey/a trip/a tour

I'm travelling on business.We're on acoach tourof Europe. in cash, by cheque/credit card

It's cheaper if you pay in cash.Can Ipay by credit card?in writing, in pen/biro/felt-tip/ink/pencil

Could you confirm that in writing?I'll write the names in pencil.on television, on the radio/the phone/the Internet

/ saw the programme onTV. Mark is on the phoneat the moment. for sale, on the market

The house next door is for sale.It's the best hi-fi on the market.on the whole, in general

On the whole it's a good idea, but there are one or two problems.

People in generalaren't very interested in politics. in advance, up to date, out of date

The company wants us to pay for the goods in advance.

Oh no! My passport is out of date.These latest figures are up to date.in my opinion, from my point of view

All sport is silly in my opinion.

Matthew never sees things from Emma's point of view.on purpose, by mistake/chance/accident

/ didn't spill my drink on purpose.I pressed the wrong button by mistake.

We didn't arrange to meet. We met by chancein the street.

B Wayand end

On the way = during the journey. In the way = blocking theway.

I'm driving into town. I'll get some petrol on theWe couldn't get past because there was a parked

way. car in theway.

In the end= finally, after a long time. At the end= when something stops.

It took Claire hours to decide. In the endshe We all left quickly at the endof the meeting,

chose a long blue dress.

C Transport

We use bywithout a/thewhen we talk about a means of transport. We decided to go to Brussels by train,not go-by the-train

We can also use inand on.

It'll be quicker to go in the car.Richard came on the train.

Note that on footmeans 'walking'.

We came all the way on foot,not by foot

BY: air, bicycle/bike, boat, bus, car, coach, ferry, helicopter, hovercraft, plane, rail, sea, ship, taxi, train, tube

IN: the/my/your car, a helicopter, a taxi

ON: my bicycle/bike, the boat, the bus, the ferry, the hovercraft, the plane, the ship, the train


Exercises

1 Preposition + noun (A-B)

Put in by, from, in or on.

► There's something I want to listen to on the radio.

1 They've promised me more money, but I haven't got it.. writing.

2 Why can't you look at the problem.. my point of view?

3 Would you mind moving? You're rather.the way here.

4 I rang the wrong number.. mistake.

5 I booked our seats more than a month............. .

advance.

6 Sarah's mobile phone was stolen while she was away . a business trip.

7 Could you be quiet for a minute, please? I'm ... the phone.

8 We've had a few nice days, but . general it's been a poor summer.

9 I was lucky. I found the solution .............. accident.

10 It's a long journey. Let's stop somewhere .. the way and have a meal.

11 I spent ages looking for a phone box. . the end I found one.

12 Are you here ............. holiday or.................... business?

2 Preposition + noun (A-B)

What would you ask? Use the word in brackets with the correct preposition. You may also need to use the or your.

► Ask if you can book a cabin before you travel, (advance)
Can / book a cabin in advance ?

1 Ask if you can pay in notes, (cash)

Can......................................

2 Ask if the information is current, (date)

Is ......................

3 Ask your friend if he dropped the ball deliberately, (purpose)
Did ...

4 Ask if there is anything to watch tonight, (television)
Is ...

5 Ask your teacher if he or she will be here on the last day of July, (end)

Will ......................................

6 Ask Melanie if she thinks nuclear power is a good idea, (opinion)

Is ...........................................

7 Ask Nick if he is selling his car. (sale)

Is .......................................

8 Ask Sarah if she approves of the plan in general, (whole)
Do .

3 Transport (C)

Complete the conversation. Put in by, in or on.

Sarah: It's a long way to Glasgow. Why don't you go (►) on the train?

Mark: I don't know. I think I'd rather go (1)....... car.

Sarah: How far is your hotel from the station?

Mark: Oh, it's only five minutes (2) ..... foot, but with all my luggage,

I'd probably go (3) . a taxi.

Sarah: Well, why not? It's less tiring going (4) .train, isn't it?

Mark: I could go (5) . air. That would be quickest.


124 Noun + preposition, e.g. trouble with

AIntroduction

Read this true story about a prison escape.

Prisoners at a jail in Iowa in the US were trying to think of a way ofescaping. At last they found an answer to their problem. They told the governor about their interest indrama and their need forcreative activities.

They put in a request forsome tunnel-digging equipment for a play about coalminers. They knew that the governor felt sympathy forhis prisoners and wanted a good relationship withthem, but they weren't surprised when he said no. But later, when the prisoners mentioned the importance ofphysical fitness, the governor agreed to let them use a trampoline. Their skill attrampolining was put to good use when six prisoners bounced over the prison wall and escaped.

Some nouns can have a preposition after them, e.g. way of, answer to, interest in.The preposition often has a phrase with a noun after it.

the answer to the problemtheir interest in dramaAnd the preposition can sometimes have an ing-form after it.

a way of escapingtheir skill at trampolining

BNoun + preposition

Here are some more examples.

your ability inmaths an example ofthis your opinion ofthe film

a cheap alternative toleather some experience ofselling the price offood

an attack onthe government an expert oncomputers the reason forthe delay

my attitude to/towardshim no hope ofwinning respect forthe environment

a belief inGod an invitation toa party a student ofchemistry

the cause ofthe accident some knowledge ofItalian a substitutefor meat

the cost ofliving a lack ofmoney success atgolf/in my search

some damage tothe car something the matter withyou a tax onalcohol

a difficulty over/withvisas a new method ofstoring data having trouble withmy teeth

C Connection, difference; increase, reduction,etc

One thing has a link with another. There is a link between two things.

a connection withanother crime a connection betweenthe two crimes

Matthew's relationship withEmma the relationship betweenMatthew and Emma

the contrast withyesterday's weather the contrast/difference betweentown and

country

Look at these words for increases and decreases. We use inbefore the thing that is increasing or decreasing and ofbefore the amount of the increase or decrease.

an increase/rise inthe price an increase/rise of £10

a reduction/fall inthe number of unemployed a reduction/fall of 3%

D Need, wish,etc

Nouns meaning 'need', 'wish' or 'request' can have forafter them.

There's a need formore houses. There was no demand forthe product.

Here are some examples: appetite for, application for, demand for, desire for, need for, orderfor, preference for, request for, taste for, wish for


124 Exercises

1 Noun + preposition (A-B)

Complete the conversation. Put in at, in or of.

Daniel: What's the job you've applied for?

Vicky: It's with a travel company. But the advert says that you need some experience (►) of work in

tourism. I haven't got that. And I don't think my knowledge (1) foreign languages will

be good enough. I'm having no success at all (2).my attempts to get a job.

Daniel: What about your interest (3).. computers? And your skill (4) typing? That's

the sort of thing employers are looking for.

2 Noun + preposition (A-B)

Complete the sentences. Use a preposition after these nouns: answer, cause, damage, difficulty, invitation, matter, tax, way

► I've had an invitation to Laura's barbecue.

1 The accident caused some.................. the car.

2 I'm trying to think of the best..................... getting this piano upstairs.

3 I can't think of an ............. the problem, I'm afraid.

4 The ...................... the accident is still unknown.

5 The government has introduced a new .................. luxury goods.

6 Unfortunately there was some ...................... the arrangements.

7 The television won't come on. What's the........................ it?

3 Noun + preposition (B-C)

Complete the advertisement for a supermarket. Put in between, for, in, of or with.

Why not shop at Greenway Supermarket? You'll find the cost (►) of your weekly shopping is much lower.

There's quite a contrast (1)................ other stores.

Here's one example

(2)....................... this: from today many of our products have a price reduction

(3) . five per cent! But this is not the only reason (4). Greenway's

success. We're proud of our good relationship (5) our customers. We believe there is

simply no substitute (6)............ quality. And there is no lack

(7) . choice at Greenway. That's the difference (8) Greenway and

ordinary stores.

4 Noun + preposition (A-D)

What are they saying? Read about each situation and complete the sentence.

► A motorist has rung the garage and requested a breakdown truck.
Mechanic: I've just had a request for a breakdown truck.

1 Claude can answer all the quiz questions.

Claude: I can tell you the ........................

2 Matthew doesn't know any French.
Matthew: Unfortunately I have no ..

3 The Prime Minister greatly desires progress.

Prime Minister: I have a great ......................

4 Vicky thinks the two colours are the same.

Vicky: I can't see any.....................

5 Most people say they prefer Zedco products.
Zedco: Most people express a ...............................


125 Adjective + preposition, e.g. proud of

A Introduction

Matthew: Why are you angry withme, Emma?

Emma: I'm tired oftalking to myself. You never listen. Iget annoyed atthe way you behave.

Matthew: Sorry, but I have to go now or I'll be late forthe basketball game.

Emma: You aren't interested inus, are you? You never worry about our relationship, do you?

Some adjectives can have a preposition after them, e.g. angry with, tired of, late for.The preposition often has a phrase with a noun or pronoun after it.

annoyed at the wayyou behave late for the gameangry with meThe preposition can sometimes have an ing-form after it.

tired of talkingto myself

BFeelings

Here are some examples of adjective + preposition which are to do with feelings.

afraid of the dark excited aboutthe holiday proud ofour work

amazed at/by the changes fed up withwaiting satisfied withthe result

ashamed of myself fond ofmy sister shocked at/bythe violence

bored with doing nothing happy about/withthe surprised at/bythe reaction

disappointed with/about the arrangements tired ofhousework

poor figures keen onsport worried aboutmoney

eager for action nervous offlying

Compare these examples.

I'm sorry about the mistake. I feel sorry forpoor Melanie.

We were angry at/aboutthe delay. Sarah was angry withHenry.

We were annoyed at/aboutthe delay. Emma was annoyed withMatthew.

I was pleased aboutwinning. The winner was pleased withhimself.

Vicky is anxious abouther exam. People are anxious fornews.

C Good, bad,etc

To talk about a person's ability, we use good at, bad at,etc.

good at tennis brilliant atcrosswords bad atgames hopeless atcooking To talk about whether something makes you healthy or ill, we use good forand bad for.

Oranges are good foryou. Smoking is bad foryou. For behaviour towards another person, we use good to, kind to, nice to, polite toand rude to.

My friends have been good tome. You were very rude tothe waitress.

D Other adjectives

Here are some more expressions with other adjectives.

accustomed to the noise fit forwork responsible forrunning a business

aware of the facts full ofwater safe fromattack

capable of looking after myself guilty ofmurder the same asbefore

different from our usual route involved ina project similar tomy idea

(see page 381) prepared for action typical ofDavid

famous for her film roles ready forthe big day used tothe traffic

71 Afraid, anxious, ashamed, interested, sorry 72 Used to


125 Exercises

1 Feelings (A-B)

Say what these people's feelings are. Use the adjectives in brackets and a preposition. ► The children are leaving on a trip to the zoo. (excited) They're excited about the trip to the zoo.

1 Vicky doesn't like the dark, (afraid)
She's

2 Nick was watching a video, but he's going to switch it off. (bored)
He's .

3 Emma is reading about computers, (interested)

She's ......................................

4 Mark has just heard some news that he didn't expect, (surprised)
He's ..............................

5 United have won a victory, (proud)

They're ..............................

6 Olivia's children are being very silly, (annoyed)
She's .

7 The Zedco staff don't think their pay increase is big enough, (not satisfied)

 :IN ON AT  :Good, bad, etc (C)
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