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Test 18 E   2150

Some of these sentences are correct, but most have a mistake. If the sentence is correct, put a tick (/"). If it is incorrect, cross the sentence out and write it correctly.

? Your friend looked rather ill. V

? It was-a-steel long-pipe. It was a long steel pipe.


1 I tasted the soup careful.

2 It's a beautiful old English church.

3 Are they asleep children?

4 It's a school for the deaf people.

5 It's a leather new nice jacket.

6 The riches are very lucky.

7 You handled the situation well.

8 He used a green paper thick towel.

9 Our future lies with the young.

10 The course I started was bored.

11 I often talk to the two old next door.

12 The smoke rose highly into the air.

13 It feels warm in here.

14 We felt disappointing when we lost

15 Everyone seemed very nervously.

16 Tessa drives too fastly.

17 This scenery is really depressing.


110 Comparative and superlative forms

We form the comparative and superlative of short adjectives (e.g. cheap)and long adjectives (e.g. expensive)in different ways.


Short word, e.g. cheap: cheaper (the) cheapest

Long word, e.g. expensive: more expensive (the) most expensive

For lessand least,see Unit 112A.

There are some less expensiveones here, look.

B Short and long adjectives

One-syllable adjectives (e.g. small, nice)usually have the er, estending.

Your hi-fi is smaller.Emma needs a biggercomputer.

This is the nicestcolour. This room is the warmest.But we use more, mostbefore words ending in ed.

Everyone was pleased at the results, but Vicky was the most pleased.

We also use more, mostwith three-syllable adjectives (e.g. ex-cit-ing)and with longer ones. The film was more excitingthan the book. This dress is more elegant.We did the most interestingproject. This machine is the most reliable.

Some two-syllable adjectives have er, est,and some have more, most.Look at this information.


1 Words ending in a consonant + y have er, est, e.g. happy * happier, happiest.
Examples are: busy, dirty, easy, funny, happy, heavy, lovely, lucky, pretty, silly, tidy

2 Some words have er, est or more, most, e.g. narrow narrower, narrowest or more narrow, most namt
Examples are: clever, common, cruel, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple, stupid, tired

3 The following words have more, most, e.g. useful * moreuseful, mostuseful.
a Words ending in ful or less, e.g. careful, helpful, useful; hopeless

b Words ending in ing or ed, e.g. boring, willing; annoyed, surprised

c Many others, e.g. afraid, certain, correct, eager, exact, famous, foolish, frequent, modern, nervous, normal, recent

C Spelling

There are some special spelling rules for the erand estendings.

1 e -> er, est, e.g. nice ~> nicer, nicest, large ~> larger, largest.
Also brave, fine, safe, etc

2 y-> ier, iest after a consonant, e.g. happy -> happier, happiest.
Also lovely, lucky, pretty, etc

3 Words ending in a single vowel letter + single consonant letter -> double the consonant
e.g. hot -> hotter, hottest, big -> bigger, biggest.

Also fit, sad, thin, wet, etc (but w does not change, e.g. new -> newer)

For more details, see page 371.

D The comparison of adverbs

Some adverbs have the same form as an adjective, e.g. early, fast, hard, high, late, long, near.They form the comparative and superlative with er, est.

Can't you run faster than that? Andrew works the hardest. Note also the spelling of earlierand earliest.

Many adverbs are an adjective + ly,e.g. carefully, easily, nicely, slowly.They form the comparative and superlative with more, most.

We could do this more easily with a computer.

Of all the players it was Matthew who planned his tactics the most carefully.

In informal English we use cheaper, cheapest, louder, loudest, quicker, quickestand slower, slowestrather than more cheaply, the most loudly,etc. Melanie reacted the quickest. You should drive slower in fog.

Note the forms sooner, soonestand more often, most often.

Try to get home sooner. I must exercise more often.

E Irregular forms

Good, well, bad, badlyand farhave irregular forms.


good/well better best

bad/badly worse worst

far farther/further farthest/furthest

You've got the best handwriting. How much further are we going?

We can use elder, eldest+ noun instead of older, oldest,but only for people in the same family. My elder/older sister got married last year.

F Comparing quantities

We use more, mostand their opposites lessand leastto compare quantities. I haven't got many books. You've got more than I have. The Hotel Bristol has the most rooms. Trevor spends less on clothes than Laura does. Emma made the least mistakes.


110 Exercises

1 The comparison of adjectives (A-B) Complete the sentences. Use these adjectives: beautiful, expensive, high, interesting, tall

? The giraffe is taller than the man.

? The CD is more expensive than the cassette.


1 Detective stories...................... than algebra.

2 The top of the mountain......................... than the clouds.

3 The acrobat.............................. than the clown.

2 The comparison of adjectives (A-B)

Tom is a United fan. He never stops talking about them. Put in the superlative form of the adjectives.

? Everyone's heard of United. They're the most famous (famous) team in the world.

? They've got a long history. They're the oldest (old) club in England.


1 They've got lots of money. They're the............. (rich) club in the country.

2 Their stadium is new. It's the ........... (modern) stadium in Europe.

3 United are wonderful. They're the. (great) club in the world.

4 And what a team! It's the . (exciting) team ever.

5 They've got lots of fans. They're the.................... .... (popular) team in the country.

6 United have won everything. They're the.................. (successful) team ever.

7 They're good to watch. They play the................ .. (attractive) football.

8 United fans are happy. We're the ............... (happy) people in the world.

3 The comparison of adjectives (A-C)

Complete the advertisements with the comparative form of the adjective.

? Use Get-It-Clean and you'll get your floors cleaner

? Elegant Wallpapers simply look more elegant


1 Watch a Happy Video and you'll feel..

2 Wear a pair of Fast Shoes and you'll be a.. runner.

3 Helpful Cookbooks are a......... . ........... guide to cooking.

4 Wash your hair with Lovely Shampoo for.............. hair.

5 Try a Big-Big Burger and you'll have a . meal.

6 Restful Beds give you a..... night.

7 Wear Modern Fashions for a .................. look.

4 The comparison of adverbs (D)

Put in the comparative form of these adverbs: carefully, early, easily, high, long, loud, often, smartly

? I was too nervous to go higher than halfway up the tower.

? We could have found the place more easily with a map.


1 Do you have to wear those old jeans, Mike? Can't you dress.. . ... ?

2 You needn't go yet. You can stay a bit ....................

3 There are lots of break-ins. They happen ................ . nowadays.

4 If you do it again ............ , you won't make so many mistakes.

5 The film starts at eight, but we should get to the cinema a few
minutes.......................... ..

6 We can't hear. Could you speak a bit.............. .. ?

5 Irregular forms (E)

Matthew and Emma are walking in the country. Put in further, furthest, better, best, worse and worst.

Emma: I'm not used to country walks. How much (►) further is it?

Matthew: Not far. And it gets better. We've done the (1)..... part. Look, the path gets

easier. It goes downhill from here. I hope you're feeling (2) now, Emma.

Emma: I feel dreadful, actually, (3) than before.

Matthew: Oh, dear. Do you want to have a rest?
Emma: No, the (4) . thing would be to get home as soon as we can. I'm not very fit,

you know. This is the (5) I've walked for a long time.

6 Comparing quantities (F)

Put in more, most, less (x2) and least.

Laura: Our new car is smaller, so it uses (►) less petrol. They tested some small cars, and this one costs

the (1) to run of all the cars in the test. It's very economical, so Trevor likes

it. He wants to spend (2)..................... on motoring.

Harriet: Can you get three people in the back?

Laura: Not very easily. We had (3)... room in our old car. (4)..

cars take five people, but not this one.

7 Comparative and superlative forms (A-F)

Write the correct forms.

? You're the lac-kyest person I know. luckiest

? The situation is getting difficulter. more difficult


1 I was happyer in my old job.

2 I've got the most small office.

3 This photo is the goodest.

4 Last week's meeting was mere-sheFt.

5 Money is the importantest thing.

6 Is Rachel elder than Vicky?

7 This game is exciteger than the last one.

8 Of all the students, Andrew does the mere work.

9 This month has been weter than last month.

10 The prices are mere-low here.

11 I feel mere-bad than I did yesterday.

111 Comparative and superlative patterns (1)

A Introduction

There are a number of different sentence patterns with comparative and superlative forms, e.g. older than me, the sweetest man in the world.

B The comparative and than

We often use a phrase with thanafter a comparative. This restaurant is nicer thanthe Pizza House. I had a biggermeal thanyou. The steak is more expensive thanthe fish.

CThe superlative

We normally use thebefore a superlative.

The quickest way is along this path. The last question is the most difficult.Note the pattern with oneof.

Michael Jackson is one of the most famouspop singers ever.

After a superlative we can use in or of. We use in with places and with groups of people, e.g. team.

It's the most expensivehotel inOxford. Who is the bestplayer in the team?

This question is the most difficult of all.August is the wettestmonth of the year.We often use a clause after a superlative.

That was the most deliciousmeal (that) I've ever eaten.

Melanie is the nicestperson you could meet.

D As... as

We use as ... as to say that things are equal or unequal. Our house is as big asyours. They're the same size, not It is so big as yours. It's warmer today. It isn't as cold asyesterday.

In a negative sentence we can also use so ... as, but this is less common than as ... as. This flat isn't as big as/so big asour old one.

Here are some more examples of as ... as.

The chair is as expensive asthe table. We cant do crosswords as quickly asyou do.

I don't earn as muchmoney asI'd like. Note also the sameas.

The result of the match was the same aslast year.

E Than me/than I am

Compare than meand than I am.Both are correct, and they have the same meaning.

You're twenty years older than me.You're twenty years older than I am.

Harriet's husband isn't as tall as her.Her husband isn't as tall as she is.

After thanor as,a personal pronoun on its own But if the pronoun has a verb after it, then we us

has the object form, e.g. me.the subject form, e.g. I.


111 Exercises

1 The comparative and than (B)

Comment on these situations. Write sentences with a comparative and than. Use these adjectives: big, expensive, long, old, popular, strong, tall

? The film lasts two and a half hours, but the videotape is only two hours long.
The film is longer than the videotape.

? The water-colour is £85, and the oil-painting is £100.
The oil-painting is more expensive than the water-colour.


1 The church was built in 1878 and the library in 1925.

2 Daniel can lift 90 kilos, but Matthew can lift 120 kilos.

3 Mike is 1.7 metres tall, but Harriet is 1.8 metres.

4 Andrew hasn't many friends. Claire has lots of friends.

5 Mark's car has room for five people, but Sarah's has room for only four.

2The superlative (C)

Write sentences from the notes. Use the superlative form of the adjective.

► Melanie / kind person /1 know Melanie is the kindest person I know.

1 Friday / busy day / week . of the week.

2 the Metropole / nice hotel / town .

3 this watch / one / cheap / you can buy .

4 this Beatles album / good / they ever made ..

5 Alan / successful salesman / company

3 As... as(D)

Use the notes and add sentences with isn't as ... as.

► a car / a motor bike / expensive

Why don't you buy a motor bike? A motor bike isn't as expensive as a car.

1 metal / plastic / strong

I don't like these plastic screws.........................

2 the armchair / the stool / comfortable

Oh, don't sit there..................................

3 surfing / swimming / exciting

I prefer surfing to swimming. .......................

4 the post / e-mail / quick

A letter will take two days...................

4 Than me/than I am(E)

Choose the correct pronoun.

Tom: Why is Luke in our basketball team and not me? Aren't I as good as (►) he/him? Is he taller than (1)

I/me? Is he a better player than (2) I am/me am?

Nick: I don't know. I can't understand why I'm in the team. You and Luke are both better than (3) I/me. Tom: Carl's in the team too, but I've scored a lot more points than (4) he has/him has.

112 Comparative and superlative patterns (2)

A Less and least

Lessand leastare the opposites of moreand most. Weuse lessand leastwith both long and short words. A bus is lessexpensive than a taxi.

(= A bus is cheaper than a taxi./A bus isn't as expensive as a taxi.) I feel better today, lesstired. I'm the leastmusical person in the world, I'm afraid. We go out lessoften these days. You should do lesswork. You do too much.

B Much faster

We can put a word or phrase (e.g. much, far, a bit)before a comparative to say how much faster, cheaper, etc something is. Look at these examples.

It's much faster by tube. A bus is far cheaperthan a taxi.

This bed is a bit more comfortable.Business is rather betterthis year.

I got up a little laterthan usual. This month's figures are slightly less good.

I'll need a lot morewater. A computer will do it much more efficiently.Before a comparative we can use much, a lot, far; rather; slightly, a bit, a little.

We can also use noand any.No has a negative meaning.

Your second throw at the basket was no nearerthan your first. We can use anyin negatives and questions and with if.

Your second throw wasn't any nearerthan your first.

Are you sleeping any bettersince you've been taking the pills?

If we leave any laterthan seven, we'll get caught in the rush hour.

C Faster and faster

We use expressions like faster and fasterand more and more expensive

to say that something is increasing all the time.

The caravan was rolling faster and fasterdown the hill.

The queue was getting longer and longer.

Prices go up and up. Everything gets more and more expensive.

The crowd are becoming more and more excited.

The country is rapidly losing its workers, as more and morepeople are emigrating.

The form depends on whether the comparative is with er(e.g. louder)or with more (e.g. moreexpensive (see Unit 110B).

We can also use less and lessfor something decreasing.

As each new problem arose, we felt less and less enthusiastic.

D The faster, the better

We use this pattern to say that a change in one thing goes with a change in another. Look at these example-There's no time to lose. The fasteryou drive, the better. The higherthe price, the more reliablethe product.

The more the customer complained, the ruderand more unpleasantthe manager became. The soonerwe leave, the soonerwe'll get there. Are you looking for a cheap holiday? ~ Yes, the cheaper the better.

112 Exercises

 :Test 18C  :Less (A)
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