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Test 16E   1027

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.

► When I was on holiday, it rained all week, (whole)
When I was on holiday, it rained the whole week.

1 I've lived here more than half my life, (most)

2 All the hotels were full, (every)

3 The house on the corner is bigger than our house, (ours)

4 I've forgotten my doctor's name, (of)

5 We haven't had much warning of the changes, (little)

6 Such a large number of people have applied for the job. (so)

7 I met one of your old boyfriends at a party, (an)

8 Both the chairs are uncomfortable, (neither)

9 My holiday starts ten days from now. (time)

98 Personal pronouns, e.g. I, you

A The meaning of the pronouns

Vicky: Hello, Andrew. Have youseen Rachel? Andrew: I don't think so. No, I haven't seen hertoday.

Vicky: We're supposed to be going out at half past seven, and it's nearly eight now. Andrew: Maybe she's just forgotten. Youknow Rachel.

Vicky: We're going out for a meal. Matthew and Emma said theymight come too. I hope theyhaven't gone without me.

I/me means the speaker, and youmeans the person spoken to. We/us means the speaker and someone else. Here, we = Vicky and Rachel. He/himmeans a male person and she/hera female person. Here, she= Rachel. Itmeans a thing, an action, a situation or an idea. Here, it= the time. They/themis the plural of he, sheand itand means people or things.

We can also use they/themfor a person when we don't know if the person is male or female. If anyone calls, ask themto leave a message.

B Subject and object forms


singular Subject I you he/she/it

Object me you him/her/it

plural Subject we you they

Object us you them

We use the subject form (I, etc) when the pronoun is the subject and there is a verb.

I don't think so. Maybe she's just forgotten. We use the object form (me, etc) when the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition.

/ haven't seen hertoday. I hope they haven't gone without me.

The pronoun on its own or after be usually has the object form.

Who spilt coffee all over the table? ~ Me./Sorry, it was me.Compare this answer.

Who spilt coffee all over the table? ~ I did.

C You, one and they

We can use youor oneto mean 'any person' or 'people in general', including the speaker.

You shouldn't believe what youread in the newspapers.

or One shouldn't believe what onereads in the newspapers.

You don't like/One doesn't like to have an argument in public. Youis normal in conversation. Oneis more formal.

We can use theyfor other people in general.

They say too much sugar is bad for you.

We can also use it for people in authority.

They're going to build a new swimming-pool here. Theyis informal and conversational. We use the passive in more formal situations.

A new swimming-pool is going to be builthere (see Unit 56B).

99 Thereand itpage 380 Youand onein British and American English

98 Exercises

1 The meaning of the pronouns (A)

Read the conversation between Melanie and Rita. Then say what the underlined pronouns mean.

Melanie: Have (►)you been in that new shop? ► you = Rita

Rita: No, not yet.

Melanie: Nor have I, but (►)it looks interesting. There's a lovely dress ► it = the shop

in the window, and (1) it isn't expensive. 1 it =

Rita: Laura bought some jeans there. (2) She said (3) they were 2 she =

really cheap. 3 they =

Melanie: (4) You ought to go along there and have a look, then. 4 you =

Rita: (5) We'd better not go now or we'll be late. (6) I told Mike 5 we =

and Harriet we'd meet (7) them at half past five. 6 I =

Melanie: Oh, Tom said (8) he's coming too. 7 them =

8 he =

2 Subject and object forms (B)

Complete the conversation. Put in the pronouns.

Nick: Did (>)you say that you and Harriet wanted some coloured lights for your party?

Mike: Yes, but (►) it's OK. Melanie's neighbour Jake has got some, and

(1) ................... 's going to lend (2)....................... to (3)

Nick: Great. Is Rita coming to the party?

Mike: We've invited (4). of course, but (5) isn't sure if (6). can come or

not. Her parents are flying somewhere on Saturday evening, and she might be taking

(7) to the airport.

Nick: And what about Laura's friend Emily?
Mike: 1 expect (8).. ..'11 be there. And her brother. (9) both came to our last party.

Nick: Do (10) ................ mean Jason? I don't like (11) ...................... very much.

Mike: Oh, (12) 's OK.

But (13) don't have to talk to (14)

3 Subject and object forms (B)

Put in the pronouns.

► There's no need to shout. I can hear you.

1 You and I work well together........................ 're a good team.

2 We've got a bit of a problem. Could.. help ... , please?

3 This is a good photo, isn't.................. ? ~ Is Jessica in. ? ~ Yes, that's ... ...,

look.................... 's next to Andrew.

4 Who did this crossword? ~ .I did.. this morning.

5 Is this Vicky's bag? ~ No,. didn't bring one. It can't belong to

6 ..'m looking for my shoes. Have seen ? ~ Yes,... re here.

4 Youand they(C)

Complete the conversation. Put in you or they.

Trevor: I'm not going to drive in this weather. It's too icy.

Laura: (►) You don't want to take any risks. (1).......... can't be too careful.

Trevor: I've just heard the weather forecast and (2) say there's going to be more snow.

(3) ............... 're better off indoors in weather like this.

Laura: I think (4) ought to clear the snow off the roads more quickly.

99 There and it

A There + be

Look at these examples.

I really ought to phone home. ~ Well, there'sa phone box round the corner. Could I make myself an omelette? ~ Of course. There aresome eggs in the fridge. There's an important meeting at work that I have to go to.

To talk about the existence of something, we use there+ be.We usually pronounce there, like the.

is and there areis . Be agrees with the following noun. There is a phone box. but There aresome eggs.

Here are some more examples.

There's a bus at ten to five. There'll bea meal waiting for us.

Is there a toilet in the building? Were thereany bargains in the sale?

There have been some burglaries recently. There might have beenan accident.

We also use therewith words like a lot of, many, much, more, enoughand with numbers. There were a lot ofproblems to discuss. There'stoo muchnoise in here. Will therebe enoughchairs? Thereare thirtydays in April.

B Uses of it

We use it for a thing, an action, a situation or an idea. You've bought a new coat. It'svery nice, (it= the coat) Skiing is an expensive hobby, isn't it?You have to fill in all these stupid forms. It'sridiculous. I find astrology fascinating. I'm really interested in it.

We use it to mean 'the unknown person'.

Did someone ring? ~ Itwas Vicky. She just called to say she's arrived safely.

We use it for the time, the weather and distance. It's half past five already. It'sSunday tomorrow. It was much warmer yesterday. It'sfifty miles from here to Brighton.

We also use it in structures with a to-infinitive or a that-clause (see also Unit 67B).

It was nice to meet your friends.

It would be a good idea to book in advance.

It's important to switch off the electricity.

It's a pity (that) you can't come with us.This is much more usual than, for example, To meet your friends was nice.

C There or it?

We often use therewhen we mention something for the first time, like the picture in this example.

There was a picture on the wall. Itwas an abstract painting. We use it when we talk about the details. It means the picture.

Here are some more examples.

There's a woman at the door. ~ Oh, it'sAunt Joan. There was a dog in the field. Itwas a big black one.

There's a new one-way traffic system in the town centre. It's very confusing.

99 Exercises

1 There + be (A)

Look at the pictures and comment on what you see. Use these words: a balloon, some boxes, the car, a dinosaur, an elephant, some flowers, the garden, her hat, the sky, the water

? There's a dinosaur in the water.

? There are some flowers on her hat. 2 .
1 3

There + be (A)

Put in there and a form of be, e.g. is, are, was, have been or will be.

► Victor: Are there any restaurants here that open on a Sunday?
Rachel: There's a cafe in the High Street which is open for lunch.

1 Alan: a train at twelve thirty, isn't there? Let's catch that one.
Mark: OK time to finish our discussion on the train.

2 Vicky: What's happened? Why.. so many police cars here?
Daniel: a hold-up at the bank.

3 Tom: Last night...... .. a party next door. I couldn't get to sleep.
Melanie: .................... must ...................... a lot of people there.

3 Uses of it (B)

Rewrite the sentences in brackets using it.

► We sometimes go surfing. (Surfing is really good fun.) It's really good fun.

1 I bought a shirt in the market. (The shirt was very cheap.)

2 Someone rang. (The caller was Vicky.) ..................... .

3 Our heating is out of order. (The situation is a nuisance.)........................ ..

4 I've left my coat at home. (The weather is very warm.)

5 Don't lose your credit card. (To keep it somewhere safe is important.)

There or it? (C)

Put in there or it.

► Is it the fifteenth today? ~ No, the sixteenth.

1 The road is closed........... 's been an accident.

2 Take a taxi.............. 's a long way to the station.

3 .............. was a motor bike outside............ looked very expensive.

4 Will .. be any delays because of the strike? ~ Well, would be a good idea to ring the
airline and check.

5 was wet, and. was a cold east wind. was after midnight, and
were few people on the streets.

100 Reflexive pronouns

A Introduction Myselfis a reflexive pronoun. In the sentence I've cut myself, the words Iand myselfmean the same thing. Myselfrefers back to the subject, I.


singular myself yourself himself/herself/itself plural ourselves yourselves themselves

B Form

Compare yourselfand yourselves.

Emma, you can dry yourselfon this towel. Vicky and Rachel, you can dry yourselveson these towels.

C The use of reflexive pronouns

Here are some examples.

Mark made himselfa sandwich. Vicky had to force herselfto eat. We've locked ourselvesout. The children watched themselveson video.

We cannot use me, you, him,etc to refer to the subject. Compare these sentences. When the policeman came in, the gunman shot him.(him= the policeman) When the policeman came in, the gunman shot himself,(himself= the gunman)

We can use a reflexive pronoun after a preposition.

The children are old enough to look after themselves.But after a preposition of place, we can use me, you, him,etc.

In the mirror I saw a lorry behind me.Mike didn't have any money with him.

Laura thought she recognized the woman standing next to her.

D Idioms with reflexive pronouns

Look at these examples.

We really enjoyed ourselves.(= had a good time)

I hope the children behave themselves.(= behave well)

]ust help yourselfto sandwiches, won't you? (= take as many as you want)

Please make yourself at home.(= behave as if this was your home)

/ don't want to be left here by myself.{= on my own, alone)

E Verbs without a reflexive pronoun

Some verbs do not usually take a reflexive pronoun, although they may in other languages. We'd better hurry,or we'll be late, not We'd better-hurry-ourselves. Shall we meetat the cinema? I feeluncomfortable. Just try to relax.

Some of these verbs are: afford, approach, complain, concentrate, decide, feel+ adjective, getup, hurry (up), lie down, meet, remember, rest, relax, sit down, stand up, wake up, wonder, worry

We do not normally use a reflexive pronoun with change(clothes), dressand wash.

Daniel washedand changedbefore going out. (See also Unit 54D.) But we can use a reflexive pronoun when the action is difficult.

My friend is disabled, but she can dress herself.


100 Exercises

1 Reflexive pronouns (A-C) Look at the pictures and write sentences with a reflexive pronoun. Use these words: dry, introduce, look at, photograph, teach

He's photographing himself.

1 She 3

2 They .. 4

2 Reflexive pronouns (A-C)

Complete the conversations. Put in a reflexive pronoun (myself, yourself, etc).

► Matthew: I'll get the tickets, shall I?
Emma: It's OK. I can pay for myself.

1 Olivia: I've got lots of photos of my children.

Linda: Yes, but you haven't got many of . , Olivia.

2 Rita: Did you have a good time at the Holiday Centre?
Laura: Well, there wasn't much going on. We had to amuse

3 Emma: Why has the light gone off?

Matthew: It switches...................... off automatically.

3 Pronouns after a preposition (C and Unit 98B)

Put in the correct pronoun (e.g. me or myself).

? We looked up and saw a strange animal in front of us.

? Don't tell us the answer to the puzzle. We can work it out for ourselves.


1 It's a pity you didn't bring your camera with.................

2 Mark talked to the woman sitting next to ..........

3 The old man is no longer able to look after ............

4 My mother likes to have all her family near ............

5 To be successful in life, you must believe in ...........

4 Idioms with and without reflexive pronouns (D-E)

Rachel and Vicky are at Mike and Harriet's party. Complete the conversation.

Put in the verbs with or without a reflexive pronoun.

Mike: Have you two (►) met (met) before?

Rachel: Yes, we have. Vicky and I are old friends.

Mike: Oh, right. Well, I hope you (►) enjoy yourselves (enjoy) tonight.

Rachel: I'm sure we will. I (1) .. (feel) just in the mood for a party.

Mike: Well, please (2) (help) to a drink. Are you OK, Vicky?

Vicky: Sorry, I've got this awful feeling that I have to do something very important, and I can't

(3) ................. (remember) what it is.

Rachel: Vicky, you (4) . (worry) too much. Come on, just

(5) .................. (relax).

101 Emphatic pronouns and each other


AEmphatic pronouns

Trevor and Laura are decorating their living-room themselves.

An emphatic pronoun is a word like myself, yourself.

It has the same form as a reflexive pronoun (see Unit 100B).

Here the emphatic pronoun means 'without help'. Trevor and Laura are decorating the room without help from anyone else. Compare They're having the room wallpapered (by a decorator) (see Unit 58A).

Here are some more examples.

I built this boat myself.My sister designs all these clothes herself.

Are you doing all the painting yourselves?When we say these sentences, we stress selfor selves.

Now look at these examples.

The manager himselfwelcomed us to the hotel.

(= The manager welcomed us, not someone else.)

Although she is very rich, the Queen herselfnever carries any money.

The house itselfis small, but the garden is enormous.

Of course the children have been to the zoo. You yourselftook them there last year. Here the emphatic pronoun comes after the noun or pronoun it relates to.

 :The Ship  :B Each other
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