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Test 10 E  Просмотрен 1384

Here is some information for visitors to New York City. Write the missing words. Use one word only in each space.

Before you travel to the US, you (►) must find out what documents you need. British people do not

(1)……………………….. to get a visa, but there are different rules for different nationalities. For example, you

(2)............. need to show that you have enough money with you. But there's one rule you can
be sure about: everyone (3)………………………... to show their passport. The roads in New York are very
busy, but don't worry - you (4)……………….. get around cheaply and easily by subway. Remember
that you are not (5)………………… to smoke on public transport or in shops. And don't forget either
that you are (6) ……………………. to tip taxi drivers and waiters. New York is not the most dangerous city
in the US, but you really (7) …………..... walk along empty streets at night. And it is safer if you are
(8) .................. to travel around in a group.


54 Passive verb forms



A Introduction

A passive verb is a form of be+ a passive participle, e.g. is baked, was worn.

Some participles are irregular (see page 383).

B Summary of verb tenses


Present simple: Present continuous: Present perfect: Past simple: Past continuous: Past perfect:


ACTTVE

We bakethe bread here. We are bakingthe bread. We have bakedthe bread. We bakedthe bread yesterday. We were bakingthe bread. We had bakedthe bread.


PASSIVE

The bread is bakedhere. The bread is being baked.The bread has been baked.The bread was bakedyesterday. The bread was being baked.The bread had been baked.


We form negatives and questions in the same way as in active sentences. The bread isn't bakedin a factory. The jacket hasn't been wornfor years. Where isthe bread baked? Hasthe jacket ever been wornby anyone else?

The future and modal verbs in the passive

We use be+ a passive participle after will, be going to, can, must, have to, should,etc. The gates will be dosedthis evening. This rubbish should be thrownaway. The machine has to be repaired.The news might be announcedsoon. Seats may not be reserved.How canthe problem be solved?


ACTIVE

Future: We will bake the bread next.

We are going to bakethe bread. Modal verb: We should bake the bread soon.

We ought to bakethe bread.


PASSIVE

The bread will be bakednext. The bread is going to be baked.The bread should be bakedsoon. The bread ought to be baked.


The passive with get

We sometimes use getin the passive instead of be.

Lots of postmen get bittenby dogs. I'm always getting chosenfor the worst jobs.

Last week Laura got movedto another department. Getis informal. We often use it for something happening by accident or unexpectedly.

In negatives and questions in the present simple and past simple, we use a form of do.The windows don't get cleanedvery often. How didthe painting get damaged?

We also use getin these expressions: get dressed/changed, get washed(= wash oneself), get engaged/married/divorced, get started(= start), get lost(= lose one's way). Emma and Matthew might get married.Without a map we soon got lost.


54 Exercises

i The present continuous passive (B)

Look at the pictures and say what is happening. Use these subjects: the car, dinner, a flag, some houses, the seals. Use these verbs: build, feed, raise, repair, serve.

The car is being repaired.

2 Passive verb tenses (B)

Complete the information about Barford Hall. Put in the correct form of these verbs.

build (past simple) 2 use (past continuous) 4 not look (past perfect) 6 use (present simple)

1 own (present simple) 3 buy (past simple) 5 do (present perfect)

The building at the end of the High Street is Barford Hall, which (►) was built in 1827. Today the Hall

(1)…………………………………. by Bardale Council. It (2) .......... …………………as a warehouse when it

(3) …………………… by the Council in 1952, and it (4)................. ……………...after very well.

Since then a lot of work (5) ................... on it, and these days the Hall

(6)………………………………….. as an arts centre.

3 The future and modal verbs in the passive (C)

A press conference is being held. Put in the correct form of the verbs.

► Reporter: Can this new drug prolong human life?

Professor: Yes, we believe that human life can be prolonged by the drug.

1 Reporter: Are you going to do any more tests on the drug?
Professor: Yes, further tests.................. soon.

2 Reporter: What…………….. the drug................ ?

Professor: It will be called Bio-Meg.

3 Reporter: Can people buy the drug now?

Professor: No, it .......... by the public yet.

4 Reporter: Do you think the company should sell this drug?

Professor: Yes, I think Bio-Meg ............... to anyone who wants it.

4 The passive with get (D)

Put in get or got and the passive participle of these verbs: break, change, divorce, hurt, lose

► If we're going out to the theatre, I'd better get changed.

1 Daniel when he tried to break up a fight.

2 I know the way. We won't .................

3 You'd better wrap up the glasses, so they don't......................

4 They were only married a year before they .....................


55 Active and passive (1)


AWhat is the sentence about?

Compare these two entries in an encyclopedia.

Alexander Graham Bell

A British inventor who went to live in Canada and then the USA. Bell invented the telephone.


Telephone

An apparatus with which people can talk to each other over long distances. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.


 


Look at these two sentences.

ACTIVE

Bell invented the telephone.


PASSIVE

The telephone was invented by Bell.


The two sentences have the same meaning, but they are about different things. One sentence is about Bell, and the other is about the telephone. Each sentence begins with the subject. The subject is the starting-point of the sentence, the thing we are talking about. The new information about the subject comes at the end of the sentence.


We say Bell invented the telephone because we are talking about Bell,and the new information is that he invented the telephone.

When the subject is the person or thing doing the action (the agent), then we use an active verb.

ACTIVE


We say The telephone was invented by Bell because we are talking about the telephone,and the new information is that it was invented by Bell.

When the subject is not the agent (is not doing the action), then we use a passive verb.

PASSIVE


B The passive and by the police, in 1876,etc

In a passive sentence, when we want to say who or what did the action, we use by.

On our way home we were stopped by the police.The new hospital will be opened by theQueen.

The paper was all blown away by the wind.

We can give other details about the action. For example, we can use a phrase saying when or where something happens.

The telephone was invented in 1876.The visitors will be driven to the airport.

The concerts are usually held at the university.Sometimes there is no phrase after the verb.

A new swimming-pool is being built.All the documents have been destroyed.For more details see Unit 56.


55 Exercises

1 Active or passive verb? (A)

Choose the correct verb forms in this news report about a storm.

Millions of pounds' worth of damage (►has caused/has been caused by a storm which (1) swept/was swept across the north of England last night. The River Ribble (2) burst/was burst its banks after heavy rain. Many people (3) rescued/were rescued from the floods by fire-fighters, who (4) received/were received hundreds of calls for help. Wind speeds (5) reached/were reached ninety miles an hour in some places. Roads (6) blocked/were blocked by fallen trees, and electricity lines (7) brought/were brought down, leaving thousands of homes without electricity. 'Everything possible (8) is doing/is being done to get things back to normal,' a spokesman (9) said/was said.

2 By the police,etc (B)

In each of these sentences underline who or what is doing the action (the agent).

► The traffic was all heading out of town.

1 The photo was taken by my brother.

2 The water was pouring out of the hole.

3 A policeman has been murdered by terrorists.

4 We were woken by the alarm.

5 The guide led a group of tourists around the castle.

6 The dog has bitten several people.

3 Active and passive (A-B)

You are telling a friend some news. Use the notes and complete the second sentence. Sometimes you need to use the active and sometimes the passive.

? (Past simple: Claire / go / to Florida / last month)
You remember Claire? She went to Florida last month.

? (Present perfect: send / our luggage / to Australia)
Bad news about our luggage. It's been sent to Australia.

 

1 (Past simple: Claude Jennings / win / the quiz competition)
Did you hear about the quiz competition? It ........................

2 (Past simple: Mrs Miles / do / a parachute jump / last week)
You know Mrs Miles? She ..............

3 (Present perfect: a bull / attack / David)
Have you heard about David? He's ...............

4 (Present continuous: build / the house)

Trevor and Laura have bought a house. It's still ...............

5 (Present simple: Andrew / like / Jessica)

Did I tell you about Andrew? He ................

6 (Present perfect: throw away / your stamp collection)
Bad news about your stamp collection. It's ....................

7 (Present perfect: Martians / kidnap / my neighbours)
Did I mention my neighbours? They've……………

8 (Past simple: five people / see / the ghost)

Did you hear about the ghost? It ................


56 Active and passive (2)

A The passive and the agent

In a passive sentence, we sometimes mention the agent (the person or thing doing the action). We use by with the agent.

The cheque must be signed by the manager.

The medals were presented by Nelson Mandela.

But we mention the agent only if it is important for the meaning of the sentence. Sometimes we do not mention it.

1 We do not mention the agent if it does not add any new information.

All our money and passports were stolen. A man was arrested last night. We do not need to say that the money was stolen 'by a thief or that the man was arrested 'by the police'.

2 We do not mention the agent if it is not important.

The streets are cleaned every day. Oil has been discovered at the North Pole. Who discovered the oil is less important than the fact that it is there.

3 It is sometimes difficult to say who the agent is.

This kind of jacket is considered very fashionable these days.

A number of attempts have been made to find the Loch Ness monster.

B Empty subjects (they, people,etc)

Compare these two sentences.


ACTIVE

They clean the streets every day.


PASSIVE

The streets are cleaned every day.


The new and important information is how often the streets are cleaned. We are not interested in saying who cleans them. In the active sentence we can use the 'empty subject' they.We sometimes use a sentence with an empty subject instead of the passive, especially in conversation.

We can also use the empty subjects people, you, oneand someone.


ACTIVE

People use this footpath all the time. You/One should check the details. Someone took my purse.


PASSIVE

This footpath is used all the time. The details should be checked. My purse was taken.


When do we use the passive?

We use the passive in both speech and writing, but it is more common in writing.

We see it especially in textbooks and reports. We use it to describe activities in industry,

science and technology, and also for official rules.

Bananas are exportedto Europe. The liquid is heatedto boiling point.

Payment can be madeat any post office. Cars left here will be towedaway. In these situations, it is often not important to say who is doing the action, or it is difficult to say.

The passive is also often used in news reports.

A number of political prisoners have been released.Talks will be heldin London next week.


56 Exercises


i The passive and the agent (A)

Laura is writing to a friend. This is part of her letter.

Someone broke into our house at the weekend. The burglar took some jewellery. But luckily he didn't do any damage. A very nice young police officer interviewed me. Detectives found some fingerprints, and the police computer identified the burglar. Police have arrested a man and are questioning him. But they haven't found the jewellery.

Now complete the passive sentences in this conversation. Use a phrase with by only if it adds information.

Laura: Our house (►) was broken into at the weekend

Melanie: Oh no!

Laura: Some jewellery (1)...............

But luckily no damage (2).................

Melanie: Did the police come and see you?

Laura: Yes, they did. I (3) ..................

Melanie: I don't suppose they know who did it.

Laura: Well, amazingly they do. Some (4) ................ ... ,

and the (5) ..........................

A man (6).................. and (7)

Melanie: Wonderful.

Laura: There's only one problem. The (8)

2 Active or passive sentence? (A)

The first motor car was made by a Belgian called Etienne Lenoir.

Write a paragraph from the notes about the first motor car. Some sentences are active and some are passive. Use a phrase with by only if it adds information.

► a Belgian called Etienne Lenoir / make / the first motor car

1. but / Lenoir / not produce / many cars / for sale But Lenoir

2. a German called Karl Benz / start / Commercial

Benz

commercial production

3 people / now / see / Benz / as the father / of the motor car

Empty subjects (B)

Reply to what people say. Use the suttject in brackets.

► Daniel: The bus fares have been increased, (they)

Vicky: What? You mean they've increased the bus fares again!

1 Melanie: Bicycles should be used for short journeys, (people)
David: Yes, I agree.......................

2 Emma: A new source of energy has been discovered, (someone)
Daniel: What? Did you say that................

3 Rachel: This building is going to be knocked down, (they)
Vicky: Well, no one told me that ……………………………

4 David: Eggs shouldn't be kept in a freezer, (you)

Tom: Really? I didn't know.........................

5 Vicky: Why isn't litter put in the bin? (people)

Emma: Exactly. Why don't........................


57 Special passive structures

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