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I realize it is certainly true that my watch has stopped.


It is impossible that something happened. Daniel couldn't have caughtthe bus. It doesn't

run on Sundays.

(It is impossible for him to have caught the bus.)


You've only spent five minutes on that job. You

can't have done it properly. I realize it is impossible that you did the job properly.

Should haveand ought to have

We use these forms when someone didn't do the right thing. We didn't play very well We should have playedbetter. I got lost. ~ Sorry. I ought to have drawnyou a map. It was a lovely old building. They shouldn't have knockedit down.

29A Will have done 46 May, might, could, must, can't 48C Needn't have 49 Should, ought to 146 Would have

53 Exercises

It may/could/must have been,etc (B-D)

Look at each conversation and choose the best sentence, a) or b).

► Has the car broken down? ~ Well, we may have run out of petrol.

a) I'm sure there's no petrol left, b) I think there's no petrol left.

1 You could have had a free holiday. ~ Yes, we could, but the dates weren't convenient.
a) We had a free holiday, b) We didn't have a free holiday.

2 Did you record the programme? ~ I can't remember. I might not have done.
a) I'm not sure if I recorded it.

b) I certainly didn't record it.

3 Can't you find that newspaper? ~ No, someone must have thrown it away.

a) It was necessary to throw it away, b) I realize now that it was thrown away.

Shouldand ought to(E and Unit 49B)

Complete the replies. Use should/ought to or should have/ought to have.

► Rita: Tom's car was stolen. He hadn't locked it.

David: I suppose it's his fault then. He should have locked it.

► Tom: I can't sleep sometimes. My neighbours play music all night.
Melanie: That's a nuisance. They shouldn't play music all night.

1 Mark: The picnickers left litter everywhere.

Sarah: That's awful.......................

2 Emma: Jessica isn't very friendly, is she? She never says hello to people.
Matthew: I know.

3 Rachel: I don't think Daniel's going to get that job. He was late for the interview.
Natasha: That can't have looked very good. ...........................

4 Daniel: Did you see Vicky crossing the road? She didn't look.

Emma: She could have been killed...........................

3 It may/could/must have been,etc (B-E)

Complete the conversation. Use cant have, might have, must have and shouldn't have. Harriet: There's a parcel outside. The postman (>)must have left (leave) it.

Mike: Well, (1) ........................ (he/ leave) it outside. He isn't supposed to do that.

Someone (2)……………………………………..

(take) it. Why didn't he ring the bell?

Harriet: He always rings. (3).................... (you / be) out when he came.

Mike: I haven't been out. So (4)............... (he / ring) the bell.

4 It may/could/must have been,etc (B-E)

Complete the sentences. The second person agrees with the first. Use might have, couldn't have, etc.

► Matthew: I'm sure the computer didn't make a mistake. That's impossible.

Emma: No, of course the computer couldn't have made a mistake.

1 Mark: I can't see the letter here now. So clearly someone posted it.
Alan: Yes, ..............................

2 Natasha: It's possible Emma didn't hear the alarm.
Rachel: Well, I suppose ..........

3 Sarah: Henry drove at 100 miles an hour. Don't you think that's dangerous?
Mark: Yes, I do.....................

4 Daniel: I just don't believe that Andrew has failed the exam.

Vicky: Andrew? Impossible! ....................

Modal verbs (Units 44-53)

Test 10A

Decide which word is correct.

Could I have some more tea, please?

a) Could b) Shall c) Will d) Would

1 Everyone's asleep. We…………….. make a noise.
a) couldn't b) mustn't c) needn't d) wouldn't

2 you like to go for a ride with us?
a) Do b) Should c) Will d) Would

3 I wonder if this is the right way.

lt ..... notbe.

a) can b) could c) might d) must

4 I don't think I want to see this film. ~ Oh, I think you…………….. enjoy it.
a) can b) shall c) will d) would

5 I'm quite happy to walk. You .......... drive me home.

a) don't b) haven't c) mustn't d) needn't

6 1 show you the way? ~ Oh, thank you.
a) Do b) Shall c) Will d) Would

7 It's late. I think we ................... better go.

a) had b) have c) should d) would

8 We all tried to push the van, but it…………….. move.
a) can't b) couldn't c) won't d) wouldn't

Test 10 B

Some of these sentences are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If the sentence is correct, put a tick (/). If it is incorrect, cross the unnecessary word out of the sentence and write it in the space.

? I won't be able to come to the meeting. /

? We didn't needn't have watered the garden because it's raining, didn't


1 Would you like to be in the team?

2 Did people have to bring their own sleeping-bags?

3 I could to ski when I was quite young.

4 Would you mind for checking these figures?

5 We may be go swimming tomorrow.

6 1 knew that I would be sorry later.

7 If you had fallen, you could have been hurt yourself.

8 We're not supposed to use this entrance.

9 You don't have to do all the work yourself.

10 Anna wasn't be allowed to take photos.

Test 10C

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.

► Perhaps Susan knows the address, (may)
Susan may know the address.

1 We should be careful, (ought)

2 I managed to finish all my work, (able)

3 I realize that it was a terrible experience for you. (must)

4 It's against the rules for players to have a drink, (allowed)

5 The best thing for you to do is sit down, (better)

6 The report must be on my desk tomorrow morning, (has)

7 It is possible that Joanne did not receive my message, (might)

8 It's impossible for Martin to be jogging in this weather, (can't)

9 Tessa wants a cup of coffee, (like)

10 It was not necessary for Nancy to clean the flat, (didn't)

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