:
282 . 988

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Have got to   577

Have got tomeans the same as have to,but have got tois informal. We use it mainly in the present. I have to/I've got to make my sandwiches. My father has to/has got totake these pills. Dowe have toapply/Have we got toapply for a visa?

48 Mustn't and needn't


47 Exercises

1 Have to (A)

Complete the conversations. Use the words in brackets and a form of have to.

► Melanie: David's broken his leg. He's had to go (he's / go) to hospital.
Harriet: Oh no! How long will he have to stay (will / he / stay) there?
Melanie: I don't know.

1 Claire: I parked my car outside the hairdresser's, and while I was in there, the police took the car

away. I've got it back now. But........................ (I / pay) a lot of money.

Henry: How much................... ... (you / pay)?

Claire: Two hundred pounds!

2 Trevor: That door doesn't shut properly................ . (you / slam) it every time.
Laura: (you / will / fix) it then, won't you?

3 Jessica: You're always taking exams. Why .............. ... (you / take) so many?

Andrew: ..(I / will / take) a lot more if I want a good job.

4 Mike: We're in a new house now..................... (we / move). The old place was

too small.

Nick: Did it take you long to find a house?
Mike: No, we found one easily. .......... (we / not / look) very hard. But it

was in bad condition........................ (we've / do) a lot of work on it.

5 Nick: My brother.................. (start) work at five o'clock in the morning.

Melanie: That's pretty early. What time .................(he / get) up?

Nick: Half past three.

2 Must and have to (B)

Write a sentence with must, have to or has to.

► The sign says: 'Passengers must show their tickets.'

So passengers have to show their tickets.

► The children have to be in bed by nine.

Their parents said: 'You must be in bed by nine.'

1 Laura has to get to work on time.

Her boss told her: ..................................

2 The police told Nick: 'You must keep your dog under control.'
So Nick ....

3 The pupils have to listen carefully.

The teacher says: .

4 The new sign says: 'Visitors must report to the security officer.'

So now

3 Must or have to? (B)

Put in must ox have to/has to. Choose which is best for the situation.

► I have to go to the airport. I'm meeting someone.

1 You .............. lock the door when you go out. There've been a lot of break-ins recently.

2 Daniel ..go to the bank. He hasn't any money.

3 I .................... work late tomorrow. We're very busy at the office.

4 You really................. make less noise. I'm trying to concentrate.

5 I think you ............... pay to park here. I'll just go and read that notice.

6 You really .......... hurry up, Vicky. We don't want to be late.

7 I ....................... put the heating on. I feel really cold.


48 Necessity: mustn't, needn't,etc

A Mustn't or needn't?

We use mustto say that something is necessary (see Unit 47).

You mustbe careful with those glasses. I mustremember my key.

Now compare mustn'tand needn't.

mustn't needn't

We use mustn'tto say that something is We use needn'twhen something is not necessary,
a bad idea.

You mustn'tdrop those glasses. They'll break. You needn'twash those glasses. They're dean.

I mustn'tforget my key, or I won't get in. We needn'tmake sandwiches. There's a cafe.

You mustn'twear your best clothes. You'll get You needn'twear your best clothes. You can wear

them dirty. what you like.

B Don't have to and don't need to

We can use don't have toand don't need towhen something is not necessary. The meaning is the same as needn't.

You don't have to / don't need towash those glasses. They're clean.

Mark doesn't have to /doesn't need tofinish the report today. He can do it at the weekend. For American usage see page 379.

For the past we use didn't.

The food was free. We didn't have to pay/We didn't need topay for it.

C Didn't need to or needn't have?



 


 


Daniel hadn't booked a seat, but luckily the train wasn't full. He didn't need tostand.

didn't need to

We use didn't need towhen something was not necessary. Standing was not necessary because there were seats.

Mark didn't need tohurry. He had lots of time.

He drove slowly along the motorway. We didn't need togo to the supermarket because we had plenty of food.

Sometimes we can use didn't need towhen the action Mark didn't need tohurry, but he drove at top speed.


Trevor and Laura booked a table for dinner. But the restaurant was empty. They needn'thave booked a table.

needn't have

We use needn't have+ a past participle for something we did which we now know was not necessary, e.g. booking a table.

Mark needn't havehurried. After driving at too

speed, he arrived half an hour early. We needn't have gone to the supermarket. We already had a pizza for tonight.

happened, even though it was not necessary. He likes driving fast.


48 Exercises

i Must, mustn't or needn't? (A)

Put in must, mustn't or needn't.

► Laura: You needn't take an umbrella. It isn't going to rain.
Trevor: Well, I don't know. It might do.

Laura: Don't lose it then. You mustn't leave it on the bus.

1 Vicky: Come on. We....................... hurry. We........................ be late.

Rachel: It's only ten past. We ................. hurry. There's lots of time.

2 Claire: My sister and I are going a different way.

Guide: Oh, you....................... go off on your own. It isn't safe.

We...................... keep together in a group.

3 David: I'll put these cups in the dishwasher.

Melanie: No, you ................. put them in there. It might damage them.

In fact, we .................. wash them at all. We didn't use them.

4 Secretary: I ........ forget to type this letter.

Mark: Yes, it.................... go in the post today because it's quite urgent.

But the report isn't so important. You.. type the report today.

2 Don't have to (B)

An old woman is talking to a reporter from her local newspaper. She is comparing life today with life in the past. Complete her sentences using don't have to, doesn't have to or didn't have to.

► We had to make our own fun in the old days. There wasn't any television then. These days people don't
have to make their own fun.

1 There's so much traffic now. You have to wait ages to cross the road. In those days you

2 I had to work long hours when I was young. But children today have it easy.
They

3 My father had to work in a factory when he was twelve. Just imagine! Today a twelve-year-old child

4 There's so much crime today, isn't there? People have to lock their doors now. It was better in the old
days when people....................

5 We had to wash our clothes by hand. There weren't any washing-machines, you know. Nowadays
people ....................................

3 Didn't need to or needn't have? (C)

Write the sentences using didn't need to or needn't have.

► The previous owners had already decorated the flat, so we didn't need to decorate it ourselves (we / decorate / it / ourselves).

1 Luckily we were able to sell our old flat before we bought the new one,

So. (we / borrow/any money).

2 It was very hot yesterday, so I watered all the flowers.

And now it's pouring with rain (I / bother).

3 We've done the journey much more quickly than I expected.

........................ (we / leave / so early).

4 K friend had already given me a free ticket to the exhibition,

So . (I / pay / to go in).

5 Service was included in the bill, so.. (you / tip / the waiter).
It was a waste of money.


 

49 Should, ought to, had better and be supposed to

B Should and ought to

We use shouldand ought toto say what is the best thing or the right thing to do. There is no difference in meaning.

You're not very well. Perhaps you shouldsee a doctor.

Your uncle was very kind to me. I ought towrite him a letter of thanks.

People shouldn't break/oughtn't tobreak their promises. We can also use shouldand ought toin questions to ask for advice.

Where shouldI put this picture, do you think?

It's a difficult problem. How oughtwe todeal with it?

After shouldor ought towe can use a continuous form (be+ an ing-form). It s half past six already. I should be cookingthe tea. Why are you sitting here doing nothing? You ought to be working.

C Had better

We use had betterto say what is the best thing to do in a situation.

It's cold. The children had betterwear their coats.

The neighbours are complaining. We'd betterturn the music down.

My wife is waiting for me. I'd better notbe late.

We could also use shouldor ought toin these examples, although had betteris stronger. The speaker sees the action as necessary and expects that it will happen.

D Be supposed to

We use be supposed towhen we are talking about the normal or correct way of doing things. The guests are supposed tobuy flowers for the hostess. Look at these cars. This area is supposed tobe kept clear of traffic. The bus driver needs to concentrate. You're not supposed totalk to him. How amI supposed tocook this? ~ It tells you on the packet.

We can use was/were supposed tofor the past.

It's eleven o'clock. You were supposed tobe here at ten thirty, you know.

52D Shaltused to ask for advice


49 Exercises

1 Should and ought to (B)

Put in should, shouldn't, ought or oughtn't. (Look for the word to.)

Vicky: I can't come out tonight, Rachel. I (►) ought to do some more work.

I'm behind with everything. I've got so much to do.
Rachel: You (1) .............. worry so much, Vicky. Don't panic.

You (2). to relax sometimes. You (3) take a break.

Vicky: I know 1(4) ........................ panic, but I do. I can't help it.

Rachel: Anyway, you're doing OK, aren't you? Your results have been good.

You (5) be pleased. You (6). to invent problems for yourself.

2 Had better (C)

What would you say in these situations? Add a sentence with 'd better (not) and the words in brackets.

► Vicky doesn't feel well. She's got a headache. What might you say to her? (an aspirin)
You'd better take an aspirin.

1 You and Daniel are meeting Rachel. You've both arrived, but she isn't there yet. She is usually late.

(wait)....................

2 Ilona is leaving her bike outside the swimming-pool. You know it won't be safe if she leaves it unlocked.
(lock)

3 Some friends are going to visit you today. Your room is in a mess. What do you think?
(tidy)

4 Nick is giving you a lift in his old sports car. There's a speed limit, and there's a police car behind you.
(too fast) ..................................

5 There's an exam tomorrow. Neither you nor Rachel have done any work for it.

(some revision) ......................

3 Be supposed to (D)

Add a sentence using be (not) supposed to and these verbs:

leave it outside, report to the police, stand in a queue, take two before meals, watch it

► You shouldn't bring your bike in here. You're supposed to leave it outside.

1 I've got some pills....................

2 Foreign visitors can't travel freely here..............

3 Be careful waiting for a bus in England. ..........

4 This film isn't for under-sixteens. ....................

Should, ought to, had better and be supposed to (A-D)

Complete the conversation. Use should, ought to, had better or be supposed to and the verbs in brackets.

Usually there is more than one correct answer.

Vicky: What time (►) are we supposed to be (we / be) at the coffee morning?

Rachel: The invitation says ten o'clock.

Vicky: Well, it's ten now. (1) ................... we / hurry).

(2) (we / not / be) late.

Rachel: Oh, it won't matter if we're a bit late.

Vicky: I think it would be rude, wouldn't it? I don't think people

(3)................... (arrive) late when they've been invited to something.
Rachel: You worry too much. (4)..... ... (you / not / take) everything so

seriously, Vicky. It's a coffee morning, not a job interview.

(5). (we / not / get) there exactly on time.


50 Asking people to do things

A Polite requests

Wecan use canor could ina request, when we ask someone to do something.

Can everyone be quiet for a minute, please?

Can you keep me informed'? ~ Yes, of course.

Could you lend me ten pounds until tomorrow? ~ Sorry, I haven't got ten pounds.

I wonder if you couldexplain something to me. ~ I'll try. Couldis often more polite than can.

In a request we can also use Do you mind ...?or Would you mind...?with an ing-form.

Do you mind waiting a moment? ~ No, I can wait.

Would you mind sitting in the back? ~ No, not at all. We can also use Would you like to ...?

Would you like to lay the table for me? ~ Yes, of course. We do not use Do you like ...?for a request, not Do you like to lie the table for me?

It is always worth taking the trouble to use one of these request forms in English. We do not normally say Lay the table for me. This can sound very abrupt and impolite without a phrase like Could you ...?

B The imperative

We can sometimes use the imperative form to tell someone what to do.

Bring another chair. Hurryup or we'll be late. We form the negative with don't.

Don't be silly. Don't makeso much noise.

We can use an imperative when we are with friends in an informal situation. But we do not use it to a stranger or in a more formal situation.

Excuse me. Could youtell me the way to Oxford Street, please?

not Tell-me-the way to Oxford Street-please.

Would you mind sending me a copy of your catalogue?

not Send-me-a-copy-of your-catalogue.

Even people in authority often avoid using the imperative to give orders. Instead they can use I want/I'd like you to ..., You must..., or a polite request form. Manager: / want you all tobe at the meeting. Policeman: You must wait until you see the green light. Doctor: Could you lie down on the bed, please?

C Asking for things

Weuse Can I/we have...?and Could I/we have ...?when we ask someone to give us something.

Can we have our room key, please? Could I havea receipt, please? We can also say Could you give me a receipt, please?but we do not use the imperative.

not Give-me-a receipt.

When we ask for something in a shop or a cafe, we can simply name what we want, but we must say please

A large white loaf, please.Two coffees, please.We can also use I'd like... or I'll have...

I'd like a chicken sandwich, please. I'll havea coffee.

45 Can and could for permission 52B Would like


1 Asking people to do things (A-C) Complete these sentences and write them in: Can I... a fork, please? Could ... have a towel, ...? Could you ... the ... for me? Would you ... answering the phone?


 

50 Exercises

Could you open the door for me? 2 .......

1 ................... 3 ................

2 Asking people to do things (A-C)

Mr Atkins is the boss at Zedco. He tells everyone what to do. Complete his sentences. Use these words: can, could, have, like, mind, must, want, wonder, would

► Would you mind making some tea, Alan?

1 Youinform me of any developments.

2 Could I ....................... the latest sales figures, please?

3 Would you ....................... to arrange a meeting some time next week, Fiona?

4 I.everyone to read the report.

5 ..I see the file, please, Mark?

6 ..you mind putting this in writing?

7 I..if you could translate this letter, Linda.

8 you meet our customer at the airport?

3 Asking people to do things (A-C)

Read about each situation and then make a request. Use the word in brackets.

► It is cold in the restaurant. Ask the waiter to shut the window, (could)
Could you shut the window, please ?

1 You are buying a coat. Ask the assistant for a receipt, (can)

2 You want to know the time. Ask someone in the street, (could)

Excuse me................................

3 You need someone to help you. Ask a friend, (can)

4 You have bought some food, but you haven't got a bag. Ask the assistant, (could)

5 You are carrying a tray. Ask someone to clear a space on the table, (mind)

6 You are on the phone. You want to speak to the manager, (could)


51 Suggestions, offers and invitations

A Suggestions

Wecan use Shall we...? or Let'sto make a suggestion. It's a lovely day. Shall wego for a walk? ~ Yes, OK. Let's play some music. ~ Good idea.

We can also use couldfor a suggestion.

We couldwatch this comedy on TV tonight. ~ Well, actually I've seen it before.

You couldinvite a few friends around. ~ Yes, why not? We can also use Why don't...?

Why don't we have a look round the market?

To ask for a suggestion we use shall, shouldor can.

Where shall/shouldwe go for our holiday? ~ What about Spain? What canI get Claire for her birthday? ~ I've no idea.

B Offers

We can use willor canto offer to do something. I'll carry your bag. ~ Oh, thanks. We cangive you a lift. ~ Oh, that would be great. Thank you.

We can also use question forms with shallor can.

Shall we pay you the money now? ~ Oh, there's no hurry. Can I get a taxi for you? ~ Yes, please.

To offer food or drink, we use would like.

Would you likeone of these chocolates? ~ Yes, please. Thank you. Would anyone likemore coffee? ~ No, thanks.

We can also use Will/Won't you have... ?

Will you have a biscuit? ~ Thank you.

Won't you have something to drink? ~ Not for me, thank you.

In informal speech we can use the imperative. Have a biscuit. ~ Thank you.

C Invitations

The words we use in invitations are similar to those we use in offers of food and drink (see B). To invite someone, we often use Would you like to...?

Would you like tohave lunch with us? ~ Yes, I'd love to. Thank you.

Would likecan have a verb with toafter it, or an object with a noun. Would you like to staythe night. ~ Oh, that's very kind of you. Would you like a bedfor the night? ~ Are you sure it's not too much trouble?

We can also use Will/Won't you...?

Will you join us for coffee? ~ Yes. Thanks. Won't yousit down?

In informal speech we can use the imperative. Come and have coffee with us. Please sitdown.

52 Will, would, shalland should


51 Exercises

i Suggestions, offers and invitations (A-C)

Put the words in the right order and write in the sentences:

post I for you I I'll / that letter have / one of these / wont I you

for a minute I shall / stop /we a game / like / would /you

Wont you have one of these? 2 ..........

1 .. 3 ..........

2 Suggestions and offers (A-B)

Complete the conversation. Put in could, shall, will or would.

Daniel: Where (►) shall we have our picnic, then?

Rachel: This looks all right. (1)....................... we sit here?

Emma: Oh, I've forgotten the sausages. They're in the car.

Matthew: (2) ....................... I get them?

Emma: Oh, thanks, Matthew.

Vicky: We (3)sit by those trees. It looks nicer over there.

Rachel: No, it's fine here.

Daniel: Yes, it's better here, I think.

Emma: (4) .................. you like a sandwich, Vicky?

Vicky: Oh, thank you.

Emma: (5) ...................... you have one, Rachel?

Matthew: And here are the sausages. (6).. anyone like one?

3 Suggestions, offers and invitations (A-C)

What would you say? There is more than one correct answer.

► A friend has called at your flat. Invite him to come in.
Would you like to come in ?

1 Offer your visitor a cup of tea.

2 You don't know what to say in your letter. Ask your friend for a suggestion.

3 You are walking in town with a friend. Suggest having a cup of coffee.

4 A woman you know is afraid to walk home alone. Offer to walk home with her.

5 You are writing to a friend. Invite her to visit you one weekend.


 :Test 9C  :B Would like
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