282 . 988


Test 9C   1752

Each of these replies is wrong. Write the correct reply.

► Is it going to snow? ~ I'm not thinking it. I don't think so.

1 Has the computer arrived? ~ No, not.

2 Don't you like curry? ~ Yes, I hate it.

3 Will you be in tonight? ~ Yes, I expect.

4 Horrible weather. ~It isn't very nice isn't it?

5 Would you like a sweet? ~ Yes, right.

6 I'm quite tired now. ~ Too am I.

7 You might catch my cold. ~ I-don't hope to.

8 The first train didn't stop. ~ Neither-the-second

Test 9 D

Rupert is at a job interview. Someone is asking him questions. Write the questions.

► Interviewer: Where do you live ?
Rupert: Oh, I live in Longtown.

1 Interviewer:

Rupert: I'm twenty-three.

2 Interviewer: .........................

Rupert: Yes, I went to college.

3 Interviewer: ................ .

Rupert: My interests? I don't have any, really.

4 Interviewer: ..........................

Rupert: Which company? Oh, I work for BX Electric.

5 Interviewer: ..

Rupert: Nothing. There's nothing I don't like about my job.


Put in the missing word.

How does this phone work? ~ You press this button.

1 The new building looks awful. ~ I agree. It..

... look very nice.

2 Could you give me a receipt, please? ~ Yes, of.

3 This chair isn't very comfortable. ~ And. is this bed.

4 Didn't you watch 'Frankenstein' last night? ~., I hate horror films.

5 What's this wood.. ? ~ I'm going to make a table.

6 I didn't say the wrong thing, I? ~ Well, you weren't very polite.

7 Will there be any free gifts? ~ No, there

8 Have they sent you some money? ~ No, I'm afraid..... .

9 Don't drop those plates,.. ... you? ~ OK, I'll be careful.

10 How.. is it to the station? ~ About half a mile.

11 Do those shoes fit you? ~ Yes, I think....................

12 Why..we have a picnic? ~ Yes, good idea.

13 foot is hurting? ~ My right one.

14 I feel a bit cold actually. -Yes,. ........ do I.

15 Who eaten their ice-cream? ~ Oh, it's mine. I'm just going to eat it.

16 of these magazines would you like? ~ This one, please.

44 Ability: can, couldand be able to

A Canand can't

Vicky: How many instruments canyou play, Natasha?

Natasha: Three - the violin, the clarinet and the piano.

Vicky: That's terrific.

You haven't got a piano here, though.

Natasha: No, but I cango to the music room in college and play the one in there.

Vicky: I'm not musical at all. I can'teven sing.

We use canto say that something is possible: that someone has an ability (Natasha canplay the piano) or an opportunity (She cango to the music room). Canis usually pronounced but sometimes we say . The negative is cannotor can't.

B Canand be able to

In the present tense, be able tois a little more formal and less usual than can.

Emma is good with computers. She canwrite/is able towrite programs.
But in some structures we always use be able to,not can.
To-infinitive: It's nice to be able to goto the opera, (not to-can-go)

After a modal verb: Melanie might be able tohelp us.
Present perfect: It's been quiet today. I've been able toget some work done.

For the future we use canor will be able tobut not will-can.

If we earn some money, we cango/we'll be able togo on holiday next summer.

I'm afraid I can'tcome/I won't be able tocome to the disco on Friday. But to suggest a possible future action, we normally use can.

Let's have lunch together. We cango to that new restaurant.

C Couldand was/were able to

For ability or opportunity in the past, we use couldor was/were able to.

Natasha couldplay (or was able to play) the piano when she was four.

In those days we had a car, so we couldtravel (or were able to travel) very easily.

To say that the ability or opportunity resulted in a particular action, something that really happened,we use was/were able tobut not could.

The plane was able totake off at eleven o'clock, after the fog had lifted.

Luckily Mark was able toget (or succeeded in getting) the work done in time.

The drivers were able tostop (or managed to stop) before they crashed into each other.

Compare these two sentences.

The children couldswim when they were quite The children were able toswim across the river.

young, (a past ability) (a past action)

In negative sentences and questions, we can use either form. It was foggy, so the plane couldn't/wasn't able totake off. The pool was closed, so they couldn't/weren't able tohave a swim. Could you/Were you able todescribe the man to the police?

We normally use could(not was/were able to)with verbs of seeing etc, and with verbs of thinking. We could seethe village in the distance. As soon as Harriet opened the door, she could smellgas. I couldn't understand what was happening.


44 Exercises

1 Can and can't (A) Look at the pictures and say what they can or can't do. Use these words: climb trees, juggle, lift the weights, play the violin, walk on his hands

He can walk on his hands.



2 Can and be able to (B)

Harriet is visiting David, who hurt himself when he fell off a ladder. Complete the conversation using can

or a form of be able to. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer.

Harriet: Hello, David. I'm sorry I haven't (►) been able to come (come) and see you before.

I've been really busy lately. How are you?
David: I'm OK, thanks. (1). (I / walk) around now.

The doctor says (2) .......... (I / go) back to work soon.

It'll be nice (3)....................... .. (get) out again. I hate being stuck here like this.

I haven't (4)........... (do) anything interesting.

3 Could and was/were able to (C)

► Which is closer to the meaning of the sentence 'Years ago I could run a marathon'?

a) I ran a marathon at one particular time in the past.

b) I was once fit enough to run a very long way.

1 Which of these sentences is correct?

I was ill, so I couldn't go to the party.

I was ill, so I wasn't able to go to the party.

a) Only the first one. b) Only the second one. c) Both of them.

2 Which is closer to the meaning of the sentence 'Sarah was able to leave work early yesterday'?

a) Sarah left work early yesterday.

b) Sarah had the opportunity to leave work early yesterday, but we don't know if she took it.

4 Could and was/were able to (C)

Put in could or was/were able to. Sometimes either is possible. Use a negative if necessary.

► Suddenly all the lights went out. We couldn't see a thing.

1 The computer went wrong, but luckily Emma put it right again.

2 There was a big party last night. You hear the music half a mile away.

3 I learnt to read music as a child. I........... read it when I was five.

4 People heard warnings about the flood, and they.............. move out in time.

5 The train was full. I ............. find a seat anywhere.

45 Permission: can, may, couldand be allowed to

A Asking permission

We use can, couldor mayto ask for permission.

Can I use your pen?

Could we borrow your ladder, please? ~ Well, I'm using it at the moment.

May I see the letter? ~ Certainly. Couldoften sounds more polite than can. Mayis rather formal.

B Giving and refusing permission

To give permission we use canor may(but not could).

You canwait in my office if you like.

Could I borrow your calculator? ~ Of course you can.

You maytelephone from here, (a written notice) Mayis formal and is not often used in speech.

To refuse permission we use can'tor may not(but not couldn't).

Could we picnic here? ~ I'm sorry. I'm afraid you can't.Members may notbring more than two guests into the club. We can also use must not.

Luggage must notbe left unattended.

C Talking about permission

We sometimes talk about rules made by someone else. To do this we use can, couldand be allowedto.

We use canto talk about the present, and we use couldfor the past.

Present: Each passenger cantake one bag onto the plane.

Past: In the 1920s you coulddrive without taking a test.

We can also use be allowed to.

Present: Passengers are allowed totake one bag onto the plane.

Future: Will I be allowed to record the interview on tape?

Past: We weren't allowed tolook round the factory yesterday.

For a general permission in the past we use either couldor was/were allowed to.

/ could always stay/1 wasalways allowed tostay up late as a child.

But to say that the permission resulted in a particular action, something that really happened, we use was/were allowed to(but not could).

I was allowed to leave work early yesterday.

We were allowed togo into the control room when we looked around the power station.

Compare these questions with mayand be allowed to.


May I take a photo of you? Arewe allowed totake photos?

(= Will you allow it?) (= What is the rule?)

45 Exercises

1 Asking permission (A)

How would you ask for permission in these situations?

Use Can I...?, Could I...? or May I...? and these verbs: borrow, join, look at, use ► You are at a friend's flat. You want to make a phone call. Can I use your phone?

1 You need a calculator. The person sitting next to you has got one.

2 You have gone into a cafe. Three people who you know from work are sitting at a table. You go over to
the table.

3 You had to go to a lecture, but you were ill. Your friend went to the lecture and took notes. Next day
you are well again and you see your friend.

2Giving and refusing permission (B)

A policeman is telling you what the signs mean. What does he say? Use can and can't and these verbs: drop, go, have, park, play, smoke, turn


? You can't go this way.

? You can park here.

1 ......................

2 .

3 ......................

4 ........................ .

5 .

3 Be allowed to(C)

Put in the correct forms.

Rita: I hear you've moved into a new flat with a couple of friends.

Emma: Yes, it's a nice flat, but the landlady is really strict. (►) We aren't allowed to do (we / not / allow / do) anything. It was my birthday last month, and

(1).................... (I / not / allow / have) a party.

Rita: Oh, (2)......... (we / allow / have) parties at our place, luckily.

(3). (we / allow / do) anything, more or less.

We're hoping to have an all-night party soon, but I'm not absolutely sure if

(4) .. (we / allow/hold) it.

4 May I...?or Am I allowed to ...? (C)

Are you asking for permission, or are you asking what the rule is? Put in May I... ? or Am I allowed to ...?

? May 1 use your computer?

? Am I allowed to smoke in this cinema?


1 ............. cross the road here?

2 .............. ask you a personal question?

3 ............ rollerblade in this park?

4 drive a car without insurance?

5 read your magazine?

46 Possibility and certainty: may, might, could, must,etc

A May, mightand could

Rachel: Whose bag is that?

Daniel: / don't know. It maybelong to Maria's friend.

Vicky: It mightbe a bomb. It couldexplode at any moment.

We use mayor mightto say that something is possible or that it is quite likely.

We can use them for the present or the future.

It may/mightbe a bomb. (= Perhaps it is a bomb.)

/ may/might go to the disco tomorrow. (= Perhaps I will go to the disco.)

Wecan use couldto say that something is possible.

The story couldbe true, I suppose. (= Possibly it is true.)

You couldwin a million pounds! (= Possibly you will win a million pounds.)

Sometimes couldmeans only a small possibility. It is possible (but not likely) that

you will win a million pounds.

In some situations we can use may, mightor could.It may/might/couldrain later.

After may, mightor couldwe can use a continuous form (be + an ing-form). That man may/might be watchingus. (= Perhaps he is watching us.) Sarah may/mightbe workinglate tonight. (= Perhaps she will be working late.) I'm not sure where Matthew is. He could be playingsquash. (= Possibly he is playing squash.)

B May, mightand couldin the negative

The negative forms are may not, might not/mightn't,and could not/couldn't.


Something negative is possible. Daniel may notget the job. Tom might notbe in. I mightn't finish the marathon tomorrow. (It is possible that I will not finish it.)


Something is impossible.

Vicky is afraid of heights. She couldn'tclimb

onto the roof.

I'm completely unfit. I couldn'trun a marathon. (It is impossible for me to run it.)

C Mustand can't


Weuse mustwhen we realize that something is certainly true.

She isn't answering the phone. She mustbe out. I had my keys a moment ago. They mustbe here


Andrew isn't here. He mustbe working in the library.


We use can'twhen we realize that something is impossible.

We haven't walked far. You can'tbe tired yet. Life can'tbe easy when you have to spend it in a


Nick can'tbe touring Scotland. I saw him hat this morning.

53 Might/could/must have beenpage 379 Mustn'tin American English t> 51A Couldin suggestions

46 Exercises

1 Might beand might be doing(A)

Vicky and Rachel are at college. They're looking for their friend Natasha. Complete the conversation.

Use may or might and the verb in brackets. Sometimes you need to use the continuous.

Vicky: I can't find Natasha. Have you seen her?

Rachel: (►) She might be (she / be) in the music room. (►) She may be practising (she / practise).

Vicky: No, she isn't there. I thought (1). (she / be) with you.

Rachel: It's a nice day. (2)(she / be) on the lawn.

(3) .. (she / sit) out there reading the paper.

Or (4) (she / have) a coffee.

(5) ..(you / find) her in the canteen.

Emma: No, I've looked there.

Rachel: Well, here comes Jessica. (6) . (she / know).

2 Mayand might (A-B)

Add a sentence with may or might (both are correct).

? I'm not sure if it's going to rain. It might rain.

? I don't know if we'll see an elephant. We may see one.


1 I can't say whether Daniel will win............................ ..

2 I haven't decided if I'm having a holiday. ........................... ...

3 I don't know if we'll get an invitation. ................................

4 I've no idea whether Sarah will be late................................

3 I'm not sure if my friends are visiting me....................... .

3 Mightn't and couldn't (B)

Put in mightn't or couldn't.

? I've got one or two things to do, so I mightn't have time to come out tonight.

? David couldn't work as a taxi driver. He can't drive.


1 We're going to need lots of glasses. We........................ have enough, you know.

2 Mark be in the office tomorrow. He thinks he's getting a cold.

3 We . possibly have a dog, living in a small flat like this.

■1 How can you work with all this noise? I ............... work in such conditions.

5 Don't ring tomorrow because I........................ be in. I'm not sure what I'm doing.

4 Must, can'tand might (A, C)

A reporter is interviewing Mrs Miles for a TV news programme.

Complete the conversation. Put in must, can't or might.

Mrs Miles: My name's Nora Miles, and I'm going to do a parachute jump.

Reporter: Mrs Miles, you're seventy-three, and you're going to jump out of an aeroplane.

You (►) must be mad. You (1) ...................... be serious.

Mrs Miles: It really (2)..be wonderful to look down from the sky.

I've always wanted to try it.
Reporter: But anything could happen. You (3)............ be injured or even killed.

I wouldn't take the risk.
Mrs Miles: Well, young man, your life (4) .. be much fun if you never take risks.

You ought to try it. You never know - you (5) enjoy it.

Reporter: Enjoy it? You (6) .......... be joking!

47 Necessity: mustand have to

APresent, past and future

We use mustand have to/has toto say that something is necessary. You'll be leaving college soon. You mustthink about your future. We're very busy at the office. I have towork on Saturday morning. Mark has toget the car repaired. There's something wrong with the brakes.

When we use the past, or the future with will,we need a form of have to.

Emma had togo to the dentist yesterday, not She must go-to~the-dentist yesterday.

That wasn't very good. We'll have todo better next time.
And in other structures we also use a form of have to,not must.
To-infinitive: / don't want to have towait in a queue for ages.

After a modal verb: Emma has toothache. She might have togo to the dentist.
Present perfect: Mark has had todrive all the way to Glasgow.

For negatives and questions with have to/has toand had to,we use a form of do.

/ don't have to work on Sundays. Why doesAndrew have tostudy every evening?

Did you have topay for your second cup of coffee? ~ No, I didn't. I don't have to work means that it is not necessary for me to work (see Unit 48B).

B Must or have to?

Both mustand have toexpress necessity, but we use them differently.




We use mustwhen the speaker feels that

something is necessary.

You mustexercise. (I'm telling you.) We mustbe quiet. (I'm telling you.)

I/we mustcan also express a wish.

/ must buy a newspaper. 1 want to see the racing


We mustinvite Claire. She's wonderful



We use have towhen the situation makes

something necessary.

I have toexercise. (The doctor told me.) We have tobe quiet. (That's the rule.)

1 have tobuy a newspaper. The boss asked melt get one.

We have toinvite Trevor and Laura. They invited us last time.

 :I think so, etc (B)  :Have got to
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