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Christopher Columbus   458

Christopher Columbus was a famous explorer. At one time people believed that he had 'discovered' America. We know now this isn'ttrue. Columbus was notthe first European to travel to the New World. We don'tknow who was, but the Vikings had sailed there around the year 1000, and probably others before them. In 1492 Columbus sailed to San Salvador in the Bahamas and to other islands, but he never reached the mainland of North America. He actually thought he was in Asia. He certainly didn'tdiscover America.

We often use a negative statement to correct a mistaken idea, such as the idea that Christopher Columbus discovered America.

B Negative verb forms


be:   are dancing are not dancing OR aren't dancing
have:   have seen have not seen OR haven't seen
Modal verb: must stay must not stay OR mustn't stay

In a negative statement notor n'tcomes after the auxiliary verb.

The auxiliary verb is a form of be, have or a modal verb, e.g. must, can, could.

The girls are notdancing. The modem isn'tworking properly.

I haven'tseen the new Disney film. David hasn'tgot a car.

1 mustn'tstay long. You can'tturn right here.

I'm notfeeling very awake today. We write n'twithout a space before it, e.g. isn't, haven't.

Notor n'talso comes after the main verb be.

The photos are notready yet It isn'tvery warm in here. If there is more than one auxiliary verb, we put notor n'tafter the first one.

This plate hasn'tbeen washed. You shouldn'thave bothered.

In the present simple and past simple, we use a form of do.


Present simple: work do notwork or don't work

looks does notlook or doesn't look

Past simple: enjoyed did notenjoy or didn't enjoy

1 don'twork on Saturdays, not I-work not on Saturdays.

This part of town doesn'tlook very nice. I'm afraid we didn'tenjoy the day very much. The verb after notor n'tdoes not end in sor ed.

not It doesn't looks-very nice and not We-dtdn't-enjoyed~the~day.

C No and not

We can use nobefore a noun or an adjective + noun. The verb is positive.

No music is allowed after eleven, or Music is not allowed after eleven.

There are nonew houses in the village, or There aren't any new houses in the village. We do not use nowith a verb.

not Music-is no allowed and not The-shops-are no-open.

40 Exercises

1 Use (A)

Read the information in A about Christopher Columbus. Then choose a positive or a negative verb.

► Columbus discovered/didn't discover America.

1 The first European to sail to the New World was/wasn't Columbus.

2 Europeans had/hadn't been to the New World before Columbus.

3 We know/don't know definitely who first sailed to America.

4 Columbus landed/didn't land on the North American mainland.

5 People's opinion of Columbus has/hasn't changed over the last 500 years.

6 When Columbus landed on San Salvador, he knew/didn't know where he was.

7 It is/isn't true that Columbus travelled across the United States.

2 Negative verb forms (B)

Complete the conversation, Put in the negative forms of these words:

can, did, do, does, has, have, is, was, were

Rita: Does anyone live in that house next door?

Melanie: Yes, he's called Jake. He's rather strange. He (►) hasn't got a job, but he (1). be short

of money because he's just bought a new car.
Rita: The house (2). look very smart.

Melanie: The people who lived there before Jake (3). look after it very well.

And they (4). very good at gardening. When Jake bought the house, it had been

empty for a while. It (5). very expensive. But he (6). ... interested in doing

anything to it, as you can see.
Rita: Is he a friend?
Melanie: No, we aren't really friends. I (7). know him very well. I say hello when I see him,

that's all. I (8) ............. seen him for a while, actually.

3 Negative verb forms (B)

Vicky andRachel are good friends, but they are very different kinds of people. Complete the sentences using a negative.

► Vicky gets upset, but Rachel doesn't get upset.

1 Vicky gets headaches. Rachel is lucky. She ...................

2 Rachel can relax. Vicky is different. She ....................... ..

3 Rachel missed a lecture yesterday, but Vicky ....................

4 Vicky is a nervous person, but Rachel ...............

5 Vicky loses things. Rachel .........................

6 Rachel was a happy child. Vicky.......................... ...

7 Rachel has decided on a career, but Vicky .................. ...

4 No and not(C)

Complete this paragraph from a travel article. Put in no or not.

Metropolis is (►) not an attractive town. There are (1) parks or gardens in the city centre.

I saw (2).. interesting buildings, only factories, offices and blocks of flats.

The hotels are (3).. very good, and there are (4). first-class restaurants.

(5) .tourists visit Metropolis, and I certainly do (6). want to go there again.

41 Negative questions

A Introduction

Laura asks two negative questions. The first expresses surprise that Trevor hasn't put the shelves up yet. The second is a suggestion that he should put them up now.


B Form

We make a question negative by putting n'tafter the auxiliary (e.g have, does).


Have you done it yet? What doesthe advert tell you? Who eatsmeat? What wentwrong?


Haven't you done it yet? What doesn'tthe advert tell you? Who doesn't eatmeat? What didn't gowrong?

C The use of negative yes/no questions

A negative yes/no question often expresses surprise.

Haven't you put those shelves up yet? (= I am surprised that you haven't yet.) Don't the children want the ice-cream? (= I am surprised that they don't want it.)

A question with can'tcan be a complaint or an impolite request. Can't you sit down? You're blocking my view.

We can also use a negative yes/no question instead of a statement and a tag. Aren't you a friend of Harriet's? (= You're a friend of Harriet's, aren't you?)

D Yes/no answers

The answer yesmeans that the positive is true, and nomeans that the negative is true. Haven t you repaired the car yet? ~ Yes, I did it yesterday. Haven t you repaired the car yet? ~ No, sorry. I haven't had time.

E The use of negative wh-questions

Wecan use Why don't...? for a suggestion.

Why don't you put the shelves up now? ~ Well, all right. Why don't we sit on the balcony? ~ Good idea.

We can use Why didn't...? to criticize.

We'll have to stand now. Why didn'tyou book seats for us? (= You should have booked seats for us.]

We can also use a wh-question to ask for information.

Who hasn't checked their baggage in? ~ Oh, I haven't. Sorry. What don't you understand? ~ This paragraph here.

41 Exercises

1 Negative yes/no questions (B-C)

What would you say in these situations? Use negative yes/no questions. ► You are surprised to learn that Rita doesn't like football. Don't you like football, Rita ?

1 You find it surprising that Melanie can't drive.

2 It's a surprise that Rachel won't be at the disco.

3 You find out that surprisingly Nick hasn't got a television.

Negative yes/no questions (B-C)

Complete the conversations using the words in the brackets.

► Mike: I walked home from the town centre, (take / bus)
Harriet: You mean you walked all the way? Didn't you take a bus ?

1 Vicky: I think I'd like to lie down for a while, (feel / well)

Rachel: Oh, dear. ......................................

2 Matthew: I'm looking forward to getting the photos you've sent, (arrive / yet)
Richard: I sent them a week ago....................

3 David: I saw Rita, but she walked straight past me. (say / hello)

Melanie: Without speaking to you? ...............................

4 Andrew: I never sit by the pool. I hate water, (swim)

Emma: Really? .........................................

Yes/no answers (D)

Put in yes or no.

► Didn't Mike stop and give you a lift? ~ No, he didn't, but maybe he didn't see me.

1 Aren't you tired after working all day? ~..................... ,1 feel fine.

2 Didn't you write the number down? ~ , but I've lost the piece of paper.

3 Haven't you got an umbrella? ~.................. , it's here in my bag.

4 Couldn't you get in to the opera? ~................... , we didn't have tickets.

Why not?(B, E)

Reporter Kitty Beamish is investigating an accident at the Magic World theme park. A ride crashed, and people were injured. This is what Kitty has found out.

► The people on the ride didn't get enough help.

1 The staff didn't know what to do.

2 They couldn't stop the ride.

Whatquestions beginning with why does Kitty ask?

Why didn't the people on the ride get enough help ?

1 ..................


3 .............


5 ..............


3 They aren't trained in first aid.

4 The ambulance wasn't called immediately.

5 The doctor didn't have a mobile phone.

42 Question tags, e.g. isn't it?

A Use

Melanie: It's a lovely day, isn't it?

Harriet: Beautiful. We're having a glorious summer, aren't we?

Melanie: You haven't heard a forecast for the weekend, have you?

Harriet: No, I haven't, but I think it's going to stay sunny.

A question tag is a short question added on to a statement. When a tag is spoken, the voice can go down or up.


It's a lovely day, isn't it? You haven't heard a forecast, have you?

With a falling intonation, the speaker thinks the With a rising intonation, the speaker is less sure,

statement is true. Melanie knows that it is a lovely Melanie doesn't know if Harriet has heard a

day, and she is inviting Harriet to continue the weather forecast or not. The tag is more like a real

conversation. The tag is not really a question. question.

B Form


It is very warm, isn'tit? It isn'tvery warm, isit?
A negative tag is an auxiliary verb + n't+ A positive tag is an auxiliary verb + pronoun,

You've played before, haven't you?David hasn't got a car, has he?

The children can swim, can't they?I shouldn't laugh, should I?

It'll be dark soon, won't it?You aren't ill, are you?

There was a mistake, wasn't there?The answer wasn't right, was it?

The pronoun (you, he,etc) refers to the subject of the sentence, e.g. you, David.In the present simple and past simple we use a form of do.

You livenear here, don't you?We don't have to pay, do we?

This coat looks nice, doesn't it?The shower doesn't work, does it?

I turned right, didn't I?Your horse didn't win, did it?

The answer yesmeans that the positive is true, and nomeans that the negative is true. Mark works for Zedco, doesn't he? ~ Yes,he does. (He worksfor Zedco.) Melanie doesn't eat meat, does she? ~ Fes, / think she does. (She eatsmeat.) Claire is married, isn't she? ~ No, of course she isn't. (She isn'tmarried.) Andrew hasn't got many friends, has he? ~ No.(He hasn'tgot many friends.)

C Requests and suggestions

After a request with an imperative (e.g. Wait ...),we can use can you?or could you?

Wait here a moment, can you? Giveme an example, could you?We can also use You couldn't..., could you?or You haven't..., have you?for a request.

You couldn't help me, could you? You haven'tgot a pound, have you?After Don't...the tag is will you?: Don't make any noise, will you?After Let's ...we use shall we?: Let's sit in the garden, shall we?

page 379 Question tags in American English

42 Exercises

1 Use (A)

Look carefully at each statement and tag. Say if it is more likely to be a comment (with falling intonation) or a question (with rising intonation).

► This price list is up to date, isn't it? ~ Yes, it is. a question

1 It was a super show, wasn't it? ~ Great. I really enjoyed it.

2 These sweaters are nice, aren't they? ~ I like this one.

3 We've got time for a coffee, haven't we? ~ A quick one maybe.

4 Let me see, the bus goes at ten past, doesn't it? ~ Quarter past

2 Form(B)

You are at a barbecue. Add tags to help start a friendly conversation.

? These sausages are delicious, aren't they7. ~ They certainly are.

? You haven't lived here long, have you ? ~ No, only three months.


1 It's quite a big garden, ........... ? ~ Yes, there's plenty of room.

2 There aren't many people here yet,........................ ? ~ No, but it's still quite early.

3 You're Rachel's friend,........................ ? ~ Yes, I'm Vicky.

4 You came in a sports car, ........... ? ~ That's right.

5 These burgers look good,.............. ? ~ I can't wait to try them.

6 We can sit on the grass,.............. ? ~ I think it's dry enough.

7 The weather forecast wasn't very good, ..? ~ No, it wasn't.

3 Form(B)

Complete the conversation. Put in the question tags.

Emma: You don't really want to go out with me any more, (►) do you7.

Matthew: Of course I do. But I need a bit of time to myself sometimes.

Emma: You get plenty of time to yourself, (1).................. ?

Matthew: Emma, you know what I feel for you.

I've told you enough times, (2) ................ ?

Emma: Yes, you have. And you're quite happy, (3) .............. ?

You don't mind, (4)............ ?

The situation doesn't bother you, (5) ................. ?

Matthew: Why are we arguing? There's nothing to argue about, (6).... ?

Emma: You can't ever look at things from my point of view, (7)............... ... ?

4 Requests and suggestions (C)

What would you say in these situations? Write sentences with a question tag. Use the word in brackets. ► You want to look at a newspaper. Daniel might have one, so ask him. (haven't) You haven't got a newspaper, have you?

1 Suggest to Vicky that you both listen to some music. (Let's)

2 Warn David not to do anything silly. (Don't)

3 You need a train timetable. Emma might have one, so ask her. (haven't)

4 Ask Rachel to pass you the salt. (Pass)

43 So/Neither do I and I think so

A Soand neither

Vicky: I'm hungry.

Rachel: So am 1.1 haven't eaten anything all day.

Daniel: Neither have I.1 didn't have time for breakfast.

We use soafter a positive statement and neitherafter a negative one. I'm hungry. ~ So am I. (= And I'm hungry./I'm hungry, too.) / haven't eaten. ~ Neitherhave I. (= And I haven't eaten./I haven't eaten either.)

The structure is so/neither+ an auxiliary + the subject.

The auxiliary is a form of beor haveor a modal verb, e.g. can.

We're really busy at work. ~ So are we.Tom has gone to the match. ~ And so has Nick.

David can't drive, and neither can Melanie.The subject comes at the end. not We're busy. ~ So we are. In the present simple and past simple we use a form of do.

/ love old cowboy films. ~ So do I. This phone doesn't work. ~ Neither does this one.

United won, and so didRangers.

We can use norinstead of neither.

Emma isn't here tonight. Neither/Noris Matthew.

B I think so,etc

Vicky: It's 'Round the Corner' at half past seven, my favourite soap opera. Are we going to be back in time?

Daniel: I think so. We haven't got far to go now.

Rachel: We might miss the beginning.

Vicky: Oh, I hope not.I want to know if Bernard really did stea the money.

Here I think someans I think we'll be back in time', and I hope not means T hope we don't miss the beginning'.

We can use soafter be afraid, believe, expect, guess, hope, supposeand think.

Do you think you'll get the job? ~ Well, I hope so.Are you going on holiday this year? ~ Yes, I expect so.I don't know for sure if Henry is rich, but I should think so.But we cannot use soafter knowor be sure.

There's been an accident. ~ Yes, I know,not / know-so.

Are you sure you're doing the right thing? ~ Yes, I'm sure,not I-m-sure so.

There are two negative structures.


Is it raining? ~ I don't think so.Is it raining? ~ I hope not.

Are you going to the concert? ~ I don't expect so.Have we won a prize? ~ I'm afraid not.

With expectand think,we normally use the With be afraid, guessand hope,we use the

negative and so.positive and not.

We can use believeand supposein either structure.

Will there be any seats left? ~ I don't suppose so.or I suppose not.

43 Exercises

So and neither (A)

Andrew has just met Jessica at a party. They are finding out that they have a lot in common. Put in the structures with so and neither.

Andrew: I haven't been to a party for ages.

? Jessica: Neither have 1.1 hate crowded rooms.

? Andrew: Yes, so do I. I'm not a party-goer, really.


1 Jessica: No,. . I can't make conversation.

2 Andrew: . You know, I'm a quiet sort of person.

3 Jessica: And.. I lead a pretty quiet life.

4 Andrew: Well,. I haven't got many friends.

5 Jessica: And I would really like a good friend.

6 Andrew: Oh, ..................

2 So and neither (A)

Look at the table and complete the sentences.


  Mark Claire Melanie Emma
Music / X X /
Travel / / X X
Skiing X / / X
Cooking X X / /

? Claire can ski, and so can Melanie.

? Mark isn't keen on cooking, and neither is Claire.


1 Melanie doesn't like travelling much, and ......................

2 Mark has got lots of CDs, and .................. .

3 Emma can't ski, and ...........................

4 Claire isn't a music lover, and ........................

5 Melanie cooks quite often, and .................... .

6 Mark travels quite a lot, and......................

 :Have got  :I think so, etc (B)
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