282 . 988


Have got   585

I/you/we/they have got or I/you/we/they've gothe/she/it has gotor he/she/it's got1/you/we/they haven't gothe/she/it hasn't gothave I/you/we/they got?has he/she/it got?



I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadI/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't havedid I/you/he/she/it/we/they have?

We do not often use had gotin the past tense.

Tom hadseveral jobs to do. We didn't havetime to stop.

CThe action verb have

Why didyou havethat funny hat on?

Here are some examples of haveas an action verb.

Mark haslunch around one. I havea shower every morning.

The children hada game of cards. We hada wonderful holiday. Haveexpresses an action. Mark has lunch means that he eats lunch.

With the action verb havewe cannot use gotand we cannot use a short form.

not Mark-has--got lunch-around-one and not I've a shower every morning. The action verb havecan also be continuous.

Mark is havinglunch now. We were havinga conversation in English.

What time areyou havingyour driving lesson?

In negatives and questions in simple tenses, we use a form of do.We didn't havea very good time. We don't haveparties very often. Where doyou havelunch? How often doesVicky havestrange dreams?

In English we often use expressions like have a talkinstead of a verb like talk.Here are some examples, Shall we have a swim?1 usually have a restin the afternoon. I had a talkwith Daniel. Trevor and Laura are having an argument.


31 Exercises

1 Have and have got(A-B) Look at the pictures and write positive or negative sentences with have or have got. Use these objects: a car, a map, a rabbit, a ticket, an umbrella

He's got a ticket, or He has a ticket.

1 3 .................

2 4 ...........

2 Haveand have got (A-B)

Complete the dialogue. Put in the negative or question forms.

Use have got for the present and have for the past.

David: (►) Have you got a bike?

Mike: Yes, but I don't ride it very often.

David: (1) ......... it ........ lights on?

Mike: Yes, why?

David: Can I leave my bike here and take yours? Mine (2). any lights. It

(3) any when I bought it. I meant to get some last week, but I

(4) ...................... time.

Mike: But it's raining now. And you (5)...................... a coat. I'll drive you home, David.

3The action verb have (C)

What does have mean in these sentences? Choose from these verbs: drink, eat, play, receive, spend

► Mark never has breakfast. has = eats

1 We've just had a game of tennis. had =

2 My father has a cup of cocoa every evening, has =

3 We've just had three weeks in Morocco. had =

4 Claire had lots of presents on her birthday. had =

4 The verb have (A-C)

Complete the conversation. Use have/have got or the action verb have.

Claire: (►) You've got (you / have) an empty plate, Henry. Would you like some more food?

Henry: Oh, yes please. I must say, (1)........... (we / have) a great time.

Luckily (2) .............. (you / have) lots of room in here.

Claire: Yes, it's a nice big flat, although (3) (it / not / have) a balcony.

Mark: How was Brazil? (4). (you / have) a good holiday?

Claire: Yes, (5)................... (I / have) a lovely time, thank you.

Henry: (6)........ ....... (you / have) some photos here to show us?

Claire: Yes, you must (7).. (have) a look at them some time. But I was so busy

doing things (8)........ ................. (I / not / have) time to take very many.

32 Short forms, e.g. it's, don't

A The use of short forms

A short form like it'sor don'tstands for the full form it is or do not.We leave out one or more letters and we write an apostrophe (') instead. We use short forms in conversational English and in informal writing such as a letter to a friend. Short forms are sometimes called 'contracted forms'.

We cannot use a short form when the word is stressed, in

a short answer for example.

Have you looked in this drawer? ~ Yes, I have,not Yes, I've But we can use n'tin a short answer: No, I haven't.

B The most common short forms

Some verbs can have short forms when they come after I, you,etc.


am I'm

are you're, we're, they're

is/has he's, she's, it's

have I've, you've, we've, they've

had/would I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd

will I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll, it'll, we'll, they'll

shall I'll, we'll

A short form can also come after a noun.

Vicky's lost her bank card. (Vicky has...) The card'llbe in here. (The card will...)

There are also some short forms with question words and with here, thereor that.

who's, what's, where's, when's, how's, who'd, who'll, what'll here's, there's, that's, there'll, that'll, there'd, that'd

There is a negative short form n'twhich can come after some verbs.

aren't, isn't, wasn't, weren't, haven't, hasn't, hadn't, don't /daunt/, doesn't, didn't, won't (- will not), shan't (= shall not), can't , couldn't, mustn't , needn't, mightn't, shouldn't, wouldn't, daren't

Sometimes we can shorten either notor the verb.

It is not funny. - * It isn'tfunny. OR It's not funny.

You will not believe it. -> You won'tbelieve it. or You'll not believe it. But we cannot use n'tafter I.

I am not sure. -> I'm notsure, not I amn't sure.

C 's and 'd

's can be isor has,and 'dcan be hador would.

She's short, and she's got fair hair. (She isshort... she hasgot...) If I'd known, I'd have told you. (If I hadknown, 1 wouldhave ...)

32 Exercises

1 Short forms (B)

Write the sentences in a more informal style, with short forms.

Ina business letter In a letter to a friend

You are quite right. You're quite right.

1 It is a difficult problem.

2 I have seen the results.

3 I do not have any information.

4 We have not reached a decision.

5 I am very excited about it.

6 You need not decide now.

7 It is not yet certain.

8 We will be pleased to see you.

9 Do not worry.


10 I would like to buy a new computer.

11 We are willing to help.

12 We will not know the result for some time.

2 Short forms (B)

Complete the dialogues. Put in the short form of these phrases: do not, he is, I am, is not, it is, what is, where is

► How are you? ~ I'm fine, thanks.

1 your luggage? ~.................. in Los Angeles.

2 Do you like this shirt? ~ No, I.............. It............. my style.

3..that smell? ~ My husband doing a chemical


3 's and 'd

Write the forms in full. Use is, has, had or would.

► What's your name? What is your name ?

1 I'd like a coffee, please.

2 There's been an accident.

3 That's correct.

4 I'd seen the film before.

5 Who's got the key?

h We'dhave stopped if we'd seen you.

33 Emphatic do

Melanie wants to emphasize the idea that the picture is nice and that she likes it. She wants to say this in a strong and positive way. NEUTRAL EMPHATIC It's nice. It isnice. I like it. I dolike it.


B Emphatic forms

Often we can be emphatic by using a full form like isor have,rather than a short form such as's or 've(see Unit 32). We stress the word when we speak it.

Yes, it islate. It's half past one in the morning. My goodness you havedone a lot of work. Well done. We can also stress modal verbs such as willand should.

You willwrite to me, won't you? You really shoulddrive more carefully. We almost had an accident.

In the present simple we put dobefore the verb.

You're so right. I doagree with you. Your hair is much too long. You doneed a haircut.

We dohope you can come to our barbecue. I'm getting fed up with those dogs. They domake such a In the third person singular we use does.

The city centre doesget crowded, doesn't it?

Emma says Matthew doesn't care about her, but he says he doescare. We do not add sto the verb.

It does looknice, not it does-looks-nice. In the past simple we use did.

We didenjoy the concert. It was really good. You shouldn't have forgotten. I didremind you.

Vicky is quite sure that she didsee a ghost. We do not add edto the verb.

We did enjoyit. not We did enjoyed it.

C The imperative with do

We can use dowith an imperative for emphasis.

Do hurry up, or we'll be late. Oh, dobe quiet. I'm trying to concentrate.

Here domakes the speaker sound more worried or annoyed. We use this structure only in an informal situation.

But we can also use dowith an imperative in offers and invitations (see page 122).

Do have some more soup. Do take a seat, wont you? Here dosounds very polite.


33 Exercises

1 Emphatic do (A-B) Put in the emphatic forms of these sentences: / like my new portrait. I'm smiling. It's foggy today. Yes, I'll be late home. Yes, I remembered the water.

Yes, I will be late home.

1 3 .

2 4

2 Emphatic do (A-B)

Complete the answers. Use a pronoun + emphatic do + a verb.

► Tom: Melanie is always helping people, isn't she?
David: Yes, she docs help a lot of people.

1 Trevor: How much did that dress cost?

Laura: Well, ................ rather a lot.

2 Jessica: Someone once told me I look like the singer Arlene Black.
Natasha: Well, a bit like her, actually.

3 Daniel: This train doesn't stop at our station.

Matthew: Are you sure? I think ...................... there.

4 Nick: Why didn't you go to the match on Saturday?

Tom: What do you mean?..................... to the match.

5 Vicky: Matthew and Emma never quarrel.

Rachel: Oh yes, ................. All the time, in fact.

3 Emphatic do (A-C)

What would you say? Use do, does or did.

► Tell your friend that you worry about your job prospects.
You know, / do worry about my job prospects.

1 Say that you finished the crossword today.

Actually, ..................................

2 Admit that your room needs tidying up.

I'm afraid ..................................

3 Explain to your teacher that you find the work difficult.

I'm afraid ......................

4 Say that you wanted to give the course up.

5 Offer your friend a chocolate.

Here you are..................................

6 Admit that this place depresses you.

You know, ................................

34 Yes/no questions

A Use

A yes/no question is one that we can answer with yes or no.

Are you ready? ~ Yes, nearly/No, not quite.

Has anyone seen my bag? ~ Yes, it's on the chair./No, I don't

think so.

These questions are asking for information. For example, Daniel wants to know if Vicky is ready or not.

Sometimes yes/no questions have other uses, especially questions with modal verbs. For example, when Matthew says Shall we go then? he is making a suggestion, not asking for information. Here are some examples of the different uses.

Requesting: Offering: Inviting: Asking permission:

Making a suggestion: Shall we eat out tonight?

Can/Could you write the address

down for me, please?

Can I carry something for you? ~ No,

it's OK, thanks.

Would you like to come to a party?-

Yes, I'd love to.

May I use your phone? ~ Yes, of course

B Form

A yes/no question begins with an auxiliary verb. An auxiliary verb is a form of be or have or a modal verb e.g. can.The auxiliary verb comes before the subject.


Is itraining?

Has David got a car?

Can Emma drive?

statement: It israining.


question: Is it raining?

The main verb be also comes before the subject in a question.

Is it cold out there? Areyou ready? Wasit easy? If there is more than one auxiliary verb, only the first one comes before the subject.

Have you been working? Couldwe have done better?

In the present simple and past simple we use a form of do.



Do the buses run every day?
Does Mark play golf?
Did you like the concert?

statement: They (do) run every day. question: Do they run every day?

A question cannot begin with an ordinary verb such as run, play or like.

not Plays-Mark-golf? and NOT Liked your the-concert? The verb after the subject does not end in s or ed.

not Does-Mark plays-golf? and NOT Did you-liked-the-concert?

35 Answers with yes and no

34 Exercises

1 Use (A)

Write down the use of each question. Choose from these uses:

asking for information (x3), asking permission, inviting, making a suggestion, offering, requesting (x2)

? Could you post this letter for me? requesting

? Can we get a number 35 bus from this stop? asking for information


1 Can I help you with those bags?

2 Shall we stop for a rest?

3 Is it Tuesday today?

4 Could you wait a moment, please?

5 Would you like to have tea with us?

6 Will your friend be here next weekend?

7 May I sit down?

2 Form(B)

Claude Jennings, the World Quiz Champion, is going to be on Guy's chat show.

Guy is wondering what to ask Claude. Read what Guy is thinking and write down his questions.

► (I expect Claude has won lots of prizes.) Have you won lots of prizes ?

1 (1 wonder if he's a rich man.)..........................

2 (Perhaps quizzes are his only hobby.) ................ ...

3 (I expect he worked hard at school.)........... ..

4 (I wonder if he's got any other interests.) .....................

5 (1 wonder if it's an interesting life.) .......................... .

6 (Perhaps his wife asks him quiz questions.) ...................

7 (And maybe he answers questions in his dreams.)...

3 Yes/no questions (A-B)

What would you say in these situations?

► You want to know if Mark has been to Los Angeles. Ask Sarah.
Has Mark been to Los Angeles ?

1 You aren't sure if Rachel and Vicky are going to America. Ask them.

2 You want to know if Laura plays tennis. Ask Trevor.

3 You are wondering if Claire enjoyed her holiday. Ask her.

4 You want to suggest to Rachel that you both go for a walk.

5 You need to know if David will be at the club tonight. Ask him.

6 You want to know if the train is on time. Ask Mark.

7 You are wondering if Mike and Harriet go camping. Ask David.

8 You want to ask Matthew if you can borrow his squash racket.

9 You want to know if Nick has got a motor bike. Ask him.

35 Short answers, e.g. Yes, it is.

A Answering yes or no

Look at the answers to these questions.

Is it raining? ~ Yes. Are we going to be late? ~ Yes, we are.

Did you say something? ~ No. Did you finish the crossword? ~ No, I didn't.

We can sometimes answer a question with a simple yesor no,but we often use a short answer like No, I didn't.We usually put a comma after yesor no.

We do not normally use a full sentence, but we can do if we want to add emphasis to the answer.

Did you open my letter? ~ No, I didn't open your letter.Sometimes, to be polite, we may need to add information.

Did you get the tickets? ~ No, I didn't. There wasn't time, I'm afraid. Sorry.

B Form

A positive short answer is yes+ a pronoun + an auxiliary.


Auxiliary     Pronoun Auxiliary
Are you working tomorrow? ~ Yes, I am.
Has Emma got a computer? ~ Yes, she has.
Will I need my passport? ~ Yes, you will.
Did they repair your phone? ~ Yes, they did.

We can also use the main verb be in a short answer. 7sit time to go? ~ Yes, it is.It's ten past eleven.

Note that in the present simple and past simple we use a form of do. Do you like classical music? ~ Yes, I do.not Yes I like.

A negative short answer is no+ a pronoun + an auxiliary + n't.


Auxiliary     Pronoun Auxiliat
Is the photocopier working now? ~ No, it isn't.
Have the children gone to sleep? ~ No, they haven't.
Will there be food at the party? ~ No, there won't.
Does this train stop at Derby? ~ No, it doesn't.

But note No, I'm not.

Are you working tomorrow? ~ No, I'm not.not No-,-I-amn't.

C Answering requests, suggestions, offers and invitations

To answer a request, suggestion, etc, we normally use a phrase like Yes, of courseor Yes, pleaserather than a short answer. If we answer in the negative, we have to give some explanation.

Request: Could you help me move these chairs, please? ~ Yes, of course. OR I'm afraid I'm rather busy.

Suggestion: Shall we have a coffee? ~ Yes, OK. or Sorry, I can't. I have to go.

Offer: Can I give you a hand? ~ Yes, please. That's very kind of you. or It's OK, thanks. I can manage

Invitation: Would you like to come to the barbecue? ~ Yes, please. I'd love to. or I'd love to, but I'll be away

Short negative answers would sound strange or impolite here.

35 Exercises

1 Form (B)

It's eleven o'clock, and everyone has arrived at a party. Put in the short answers.

► Have you got a drink? ~ Yes, I have, thank you. I've just put it down somewhere.

1 Can you speak Arabic? ~ ........... , but not very well.

2 Is it raining outside? ~................... It's just started.

3 Has David come with you? ~.................... . . He's in hospital, actually.

4 Did you come by car, Tom? ~................... It took ages because of all the traffic.

5 Are those people over there your friends? ~......... .. .1 don't know them at all.

6 Do you like England? ~................... -I'm enjoying my stay here.

7 Is your brother here? ~................... He's away on business at the moment.

8 Have you seen Nick recently? ~................... I think he's moved away.

2 Form (B)

It's one o'clock in the morning, and the party is in full swing. People are still talking. Put in the short answers.

► Are you French? ~ No, I'm not. I'm Italian. I'm from Milan.

1 Will you and Laura be here in August? ~..................... We're going to France.

2 Did you remember to bring the photos? ~....................... I'll give them to you in a minute.

3 Has Rita broken up with her boyfriend? ~...................... It's all over, she told me.

4 Did you see that documentary about the ozone layer on television last night?

................ I was working late, unfortunately.

5 Does Laura like these old songs? ~ ................ She loves Elvis Presley.

6 Are you and Mike staying the night here? ~...................... We have to get home tonight.

7 Can we afford a taxi? ~.................. It's quite a long way.

8 Are you OK, Vicky? ~............... I feel really awful.

3 Answering questions (A-C)

Which would normally be the best answer?

► Are you busy today?

a) Yes, busy, b) VYes, I am.

1 Is it too hot in here for you?

a) No, it isn't, b) No, I'm fine, thanks.

2 Do you know Emma?

a) Yes. b) Yes, we live in the same building.

3 Tell me, did you steal my money?

a) No. b) No, I didn't steal your money.

4 Do you live on the campus?

a) Yes, I do. b) Yes, I live on it.

5 Would you like to come out with us for the day?
a) Yes, I would like, b) Yes, please.

6 Is it the eighteenth today?

a) Yes, it is. b) Yes, it is the eighteenth of November today.

7 Did you bring my CD?

a) No. b) No, sorry. I forgot it.

8 Can I carry your bags?

a) No, you can't, b) It's all right, thanks.

36 Wh-questions

A Introduction

Reporter Kitty Beamish is interviewing some guerrilla fighters.

Guerillas: For our freedom. We can help them Very soon.


Why are you fighting?

What can you do for the people?

When will the war be over?

A wh-question begins with a question word. Question words are who, what, which, whose, where, when, whyand how.

We use a wh-question to ask for information.

B Form

Most wh-questions begin with a question word + an auxiliary verb + the subject. (For another form of wh-question, see Unit 37.) An auxiliary verb is a form of beor haveor a modal verb, e.g. can.














put the map?

travel safely?

The main verb be also comes before the subject in questions.

Where isKitty? How areyou? What wasthat noise? If there is more than one auxiliary verb, only the first one comes before the subject.

The guerrillas have beenhiding. Where havethe guerrillas been hiding?

I should havesaid something. What shouldI have said?

In the present simple and past simple we use a form of do.


Where do people meet?
How does the radio work?
What did the guerrillas say?

An ordinary verb such as meet, workor say cannot come before the subject.

not Where meet-people? and not How works-the-radio? The verb after the subject does not end in s or ed.

not How-does-the-radio-works? and not What did-the-guerrillas-said?

Question phrases

Look at these question phrases with whatand how.

What time is your friend arriving? ~ Half past eight. What colouris your toothbrush? ~ Yellow. What kind of/What sort of club is it? ~ A nightclub. How oldis your sister? ~ She's twenty. How often do you go out? ~ About once a week, usually. How faris the beach? ~ Only five minutes walk How longwill the meeting last? ~ An hour or so, I expect. How manytelevisions have you got? ~ Three How much money did you spend? ~ About a hundred pounds.

36 Exercises

1 Wh-questions (A-B)

What would you say in these situations?

► You are talking to a man at a party. Ask him where he works. Where do you work?

1 You want to know what the date is today. Ask your friend.

2 You've forgotten when the course finishes. Ask your friend.

3 Your friend is having a party. You'd like to know who he has invited. Ask him.

4 Your favourite band are going to give a concert. Ask how you can get tickets.

5 You are in town with a friend, and you are wondering where the two of you are going to have lunch.
What do you ask?

2 Question words and phrases (A-C)

Quiz champion Claude Jennings is answering questions. Put in these words and phrases:
how far, how long, how often, how many, what, what colour, what kind, when, where, who
Quiz-master: Claude:

What colour is the Greek flag? Blue and white.

1. is Melbourne? It's in Australia.

2. .centimetres are there in a kilometre? A hundred thousand.

3. . did the Second World War end? In 1945.

4 ................. did Romeo love? Juliet.

5 ......... is Sirius? It's a star.

6 ..is it from Los Angeles to San Francisco? About 400 miles.

7 ......... are the Olympic Games held? Every four years.

8 of food is Cheddar? It's cheese.

9 ............. is a game of rugby? Eighty minutes.

3 Wh-questions (A-C)

Guy is interviewing a guest on his chat show. It's the actress Melissa Livingstone, who is in the TV soap opera 'Round the Corner'. Put in Guy's questions.

► Guy: How often do you record 'Round the Corner'?

Melissa: Oh, we record it every day. It's a full-time job, you know.

1 Guy: And............................. it?

Melissa: In Birmingham, at the BBC studios.

2 Guy: ..

Melissa: How many? Well, let me see, I think we've done a thousand programmes.

3 Guy: ..

Melissa: I'm not going to tell you. How much money I earn is my business.

4 Guy: OK, I'm sorry. .............. .

Melissa: Oh, a long time ago. I started acting when I was twelve.

5 Guy:

Melissa: My plans for the future? I just want to go on with 'Round the Corner'.

37 Subject/object questions

A Who and what



Who is interviewing Kitty?

Whoand whatcan be the subject of a question. The word order is the same as in a statement.


Who rang you? (Someone rang you.) Who is helping you? (Someone is helping you.) What will happen next? (Something will happen next.)

Who is Kitty interviewing?

Whoand whatcan also be the object. An auxiliary (e.g. did, will)comes before the subject.


Who did you ring?

(You rang someone.) Who are you helping? (You are helping someone.) What will they do next? (They will do something next.)

Whoand whatcan also be the object of a preposition, e.g. to, with.(For prepositions in questions, see Unit 38.) Compare these sentences.


Who was talking to you? (Someone was talking to you.) What wine goes with fish? (Some wine goes with fish.)

B Which, whose, how many and how much

These words can also be either the subject or the object.


Which program will work best? (One of the programs will work best.) Whose dog is barking over there? (Someone's dog is barking over there.) How many people came past? (Some people came past.) How much oil got into the river? (Some oil got into the river.)


Who were you talking to?

(You were talking to someone.) What does this colour go with? (This colour goes with something.)


Which program will you use?

(You will use one of the programs.) Whose dog is Melanie walking? (Melanie is walking someone's dog.) How many people did you see? (You saw some people.) How much oil did you buy? (You bought some oil.)

37 Exercises

1 Whoand whatas subject and object (A)

Read about the situations and answer each question in a single phrase.

► The morning after his party, Tom was cleaning up. David came along and took away some empty bottles for him. Nick had just woken up after spending the night on Tom's sofa. He watched them for a while. a) Who helped Tom? David b) Who did Nick help? no one

1 Nick wants to marry Rita. She's been out with him a few times, but really she's in love with Tom.
Unfortunately he isn't in love with her.

a) Who is Nick in love with?....................... b) Who is in love with Tom?

2 Mark met Sarah at the airport. The plane was two hours late. On the way out they passed Mike
standing at a bus stop, but they didn't notice him.

a) Who met Sarah?........................ b) What was Mike waiting for?

3 There was an accident at the crossroads. A lorry crashed into a van that was waiting at the lights. The
van slid forward and crashed into a car. The van driver had to go to hospital.

a) What hit the van? ..................... b) What did the van hit?

2 Whoand whatas subject and object (A)

People aren't giving you enough information. Ask questions with who or what.

? Something has happened. ~ Oh? What has happened?

? I've invited someone to tea. ~ Well? Who have you invited?


1 Somebody is having a party. ~ Oh, really? ...................... .

2 I was reading something. ~ Oh? .....................

3 I've learnt something. ~ Go on, tell me. ............................... ..

4 We should do something. ~ Yes, I know, but ...............................

5 Someone is looking for you. ~Oh? ........................

6 I'm looking for someone. ~ Maybe I can help................... .

7 Rachel is planning something. ~ Is she? ........................ .

8 Somebody has moved in next door. ~ Oh, really? ............. ..

9 Something is worrying me. ~ Well, tell me. ........................ .

10 I want to meet someone. ~ What do you mean? ........................

3 Which, whose, how manyand how much (B)

Harriet is visiting her grandmother, Mrs Evans. It's Mrs Evans's birthday.

She can't hear very well, and she sometimes gets confused. Complete her questions.

Harriet: Mrs Evans:

? So ten people have sent cards. Pardon? How many people have sent cards ?

? 1 met David's friend yesterday. What? Whose friend did you meet ?


1 You can keep those photos. Photos? Which ................ ..

2 Those flowers look lovely. Do they? Which

3 Fifty pounds went missing. Missing? How much ....................

4 I passed Mark's house earlier. Pardon? Whose ........................ ..

5 The doctor has four children. Really? How many ..

6 Doctors earn lots of money. I don't know. How much..

7 Mike's uncle has died. What's that? Whose

8 Trevor's wife is coming later. Oh? Whose ...

38 Prepositions in wh-questions


Daniel and Rachel each ask Vicky a question. In each question, the word whatis the object of a preposition (for, about).

What are you looking for?

(You are looking forsomething.)

What are you worrying about?

(You are worrying about something.)

The preposition normally comes in the same place as in a statement: looking for, worrying about.

not For what are-you looking?

not Abouht what are-you-worrying? But in more formal English, the preposition can come before the question word.

In which warehouse were the goods stored?

or Which warehouse were the goods stored in?In formal English we use a preposition + whom(not who).

From whom did you obtain the information?

or Who did you obtain the information from?

Here are some more examples of prepositions in wh-questions. Who are we waiting for?~ Rachel. What's Nick laughing at?~ Oh, one of Tom's jokes. Whereare you from?/Wheredo you come from?~ Bombay. What kind of holiday are you interested in?~ A package holiday. Whodid you go out withlast night? ~ Just a friend.

B What... forand what... like

We can use a question with what... forto ask about purpose.

What did you buy this computer magazine for?~ To read about business software.

What are these bricks for?~ We're going to build a wall.

What are they digging the road up for?~ They're repairing a gas pipe. What... formeans the same as why.

Why are they digging up the road? ~ They're repairing a gas pipe.

We can use what ... liketo ask if something is good or bad, interesting or boring, etc.

What was the party like?~ Oh, we had a great time.

What's the place likewhere you live? ~ It's pretty quiet. Note also look like.

What does your friend look like?~ She's very tall and blond.

But we use howto ask about someone's well-being.

How are you? ~ I'm OK, thanks. And you?

How are you getting on in your new job? ~ I'm really enjoying it. Compare these two questions.

How's Melanie? ~ Oh, she's fine, thanks. (She is happy/in good health.)

What's Melanie like?~ She's very nice. (She is a nice person.)

38 Exercises

1 Prepositions in wh-questions (A)

Ask these people questions with what.

Use these verbs and prepositions: look at, look for, point at, talk about, wait for


What are you looking for ?



2 Prepositions in wh-questions (A)

? Melanie: David: ? Laura: Trevor:   1 Jessica: Andrew: 2 Trevor: Ilona: 3 Sarah: Claire: 4 Matthew: Daniel: 5 Vicky: Rachel:

Put in the question. Use what and put the preposition in brackets at the end. Tom is smiling. He's pleased, (about) Yes, he is. What is he pleased about? I'm busy today. I'm getting ready, (for) What are you getting ready for ? I've done something awful. I'm ashamed, (of)

Haven't you heard of Kitty Beamish? She's famous, (for)

No, I haven't...................

Mark is annoyed. He's going to complain, (about)

Emma's in a hurry. She's going to be late, (for) I don't feel very relaxed. I feel nervous, (about)


3 What... for and what... like (B)

Trevor has just come home from work. Complete the conversation. Put in for, how, like or what.

Trevor: Hello, my love. (►) How are you?

Laura: Hello. I'm all right, but I'm in a bit of a rush getting ready for the barbecue.

Trevor: Er, I forgot to tell you that I invited two more people.

Laura: (1). are you telling me now (2). ? I've bought all the food. I just hope there's

enough. Anyway, who are these people? (3)............ are they (4). ... ?

Trevor: They're friends of Harriet's. They're very nice people. And after all, (5) are parties

(6). ? To meet new people.

Laura: It isn't a party, it's a barbecue. (7) .. 's the weather going to be (8).. ... ?

Trevor: The forecast said it's going to be perfect. Warm and dry.
Laura: Good. And (9).. was your day?

Trevor: Oh, not too bad. Busy as usual.

39 Who, what or which?

A What or which?

We can use whator whichbefore a noun.


What sport do you play? Which waydo we go here?

What books do you read? Which fingerdid you break?

We use whatwhen there is a wide choice of We use whichwhen there is a limited number of

possible answers. We ask What sport? because possible answers. We ask Which way? because

there are lots of different sports. there are only two or three ways to go.

What sport? Which way?

(Tennis or golf or football or hockey or ... ?) (Right or left?)

After whichwe sometimes say the possible answers.

Which cafe did you go to, Snoopy's, the Coffee Pot or the Tea Gardens?

Which phone shall I use, this one or the one in the office?Sometimes whatand whichare both possible.

What day/Which day is your evening class? Whattrain/Which train will you catch?

What platform/Which platform does the train go from? Whatpart/Which part of Italy are you from?

BPatterns with who, whatand which

We can use who, whatand whichwithout a noun.

Who sent the fax? Whatdo you think of our plan? Whichis quicker, the bus or the train? We can use whatand whichbefore a noun, but not who.

Which secretary sent the fax? not Who-secretary-sent the-fax?

We can use whichwith one or ones, or with of.

You can have a photo. Which onewould you like?

You can have some of the photos. Which oneswould you like?

Which of these photos would you like? But we cannot use whoor whatbefore of.

Which of the secretaries? but not Who-of the secretaries?

Whoalways means a person.

Who did you see? (a person) Whatusually means a thing. It can mean a person only when it comes before a noun.

What did you see? (a thing) What doctor/What film did you see? (a person or a thing) Whichcan mean a person or a thing.

Which doctor/film did you see? (a person or a thing)

102 One and ones

39 Exercises

1 What or which? (A)

The questions you are asking have a number of possible answers.

If the list of answers is incomplete, ask a question with what. If the list is complete, use which.

? (Do you play the piano, or the violin, or the guitar, or ...?)
What musical instrument do you play ?

? (Did you go to the Little Theatre or the Theatre Royal?)
Which theatre did you go to ?


1 (Did you take the morning flight or the afternoon flight?)

2 (Did you stay at the Grand Hotel or the Bristol?)

3 (Do you like classical music, or jazz, or rock music, or ...?)

4 (Did you buy 'Time' magazine, or 'Newsweek', or a computer magazine, or ...?)

5 (Do you work for EuroChemicals, or ICM, or SenCo, or ...?)

6 (Are you learning English, or Spanish, or Arabic, or Japanese, or ...?)

2 What or which? (A)

Rita is moving into a new flat. Trevor has come to see the flat and help her move in. Complete his questions. Put in what or which. ► Trevor: What number is this building? Rita: Forty-two.

1 Trevor: I didn't realize there were only three floors.. .. floor is your flat on?
Rita: The first floor.

2 Trevor: It's a very nice flat............... room will be your living-room?

Rita: This one here, I thought.

3 Trevor: ....................... colour are you going to paint it?

Rita: Oh, I don't know yet.

4 Trevor: ........................ time is your furniture arriving?

Rita: Three o'clock, they said.

5 Trevor: I'll need some petrol............... way is the nearest petrol station?

Rita: Turn left at the end of the street.

3 Who, what or which? (B)

Detectives Wilson and Taylor are looking into the murder of Lord Weybridge at his country house. Put in who, what or which.

Wilson: (►) Which of the guests in this house is the murderer, do you think, Taylor?

Taylor: I don't know yet. (1).. had the opportunity? (2) of the guests had the

chance to do it?

Wilson: (3).. happened after dinner last night? That's what we have to find out.

Taylor: There must be a motive for the murder. (4) motive could the murderer have?

Wilson: Love or money - they're the usual motives. (5) of them is it, I wonder?

Taylor: (6) did Lord Weybridge leave his money to? That's the question, Wilson.

TEST 8 Questions (Units 34-39)

Test 8A

Put the words in the right order and ask the question. ► everyone / is / ready Is everyone ready ?

1 been / have / where / you

2 do / postcards / sell / you

3 belong / calculator / does / this / to / who

4 are / here / how / long / staying / you

5 is / like / new / office / what / your

6 are / flights / full / of / the / which

7 carnival / does / start / the / time / what

8 decided / has / holiday / Nancy / on / what

Test 8B

Put in the correct question word or phrase.

What did you buy? ~ A box of chocolates.

1 is this building? ~ It's about two hundred years old.

2 does your team play in? ~ Red.

3.bag are you carrying? ~ Judy's.

4 money do you earn? ~ About £250 a week.

5hand do you write with? ~ My right hand.

6.of shop do you work in? ~ A toy shop.

7 ..first stepped on the moon? ~ Neil Armstrong, wasn't it?

8 ..is your mother? ~ She's much better, thank you.

9 is it to the post office? ~ About two hundred metres.

10 do you take a holiday? ~ Once a year.

11..name will you give the baby? ~ We haven't thought of one yet.

Test 8C

Write the sentences correctly.

Would-like-you:to go sailing? Would you like to go sailing?

1 Do you be-a student here?

2 How many-cakes have eaten you?

3 Enjoyed-you your walk?

4 Where your-friends have gone?

5 What kind of music-do-you like?

6 Does-Peter plays tennis?

7 About what are you-talking?

8 What has it happened?


Read about each situation and write down the question.

? You want to know if it is raining.
Is it raining ?

? You need to ask Polly where she lives.
Where do you live?


1 You would like to ask Nancy where she bought her coat.

2 You want to ask Susan if Amy can swim.

3 You want to ask Simon which band he likes best.

4 On the phone you want to know who you are speaking to.

5 You need to know how much video recorders cost.

6 You are asking permission to come in.

7 You need to find out how long the journey takes.

8 You want to ask Adrian what he locked the door for.

9 You want to ask what happens next.

10 You want to suggest that you all go out together.

 :Was going to (B)  :Christopher Columbus
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