282 . 988


Test 3D   1339

Some of these sentences are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If the sentence is correct, put a tick (/). If it is incorrect, cross the unnecessary have or has out of the sentence and write it in the space.

? Susan has lost her keys. She can't find them anywhere. V

? Christopher has hurt his hand, but it's OK now. has


1 The directors have arrived half an hour ago, but they didn't stay long.

2 It's raining, and Peter has left his umbrella behind, look.

3 It's a long time since your friends have last visited us.

4 None of you have called me for weeks. Aren't we friends any more?

5 We can play tennis now. The others have finished.

6 The company has bought some land, but then it sold it.

7 The computer isn't on now. Someone has turned it off.

8 Tessa has posted the parcel. It's on its way to you.

9 Several bombs have gone off in the city centre. It has happened
an hour ago.

10 Simon has left. He and Oliver have left after lunch.


Put in the present perfect or past simple of the verbs in brackets.

? I've had (have) these shoes since my eighteenth birthday.

? I tidied (tidy) my desk, but now it's in a mess again.


1 The last time I .......... (go) to Brighton was in August.

2 I'd like to meet a ghost, but I .................. (never / see) one.

3 I've finished my homework. I....................... (do) it before tea.

4 And the race is over! And Micky Simpson..................... (win) in a record time!

5 I ..................... (work) for a computer company for a year. That was after college.

6 What time ........... (you / get) to work this morning?

7 Martin ................... (be) to Greece five times. He loves the place.

8 ThePresident ................ (come) out of the building and is going to make a speech.

9 You won't believe this, but I've got some tickets for the concert. ~ Oh, well done. How

............. (you / get) them?

10 Of course I can ride a bike. But I ....................... . (not / ride) one for years.

11 Marilyn Monroe.............. (be) in about thirty films.

12 .................... (you / ever / bake) your own bread? ~ No, but I might try it some time.

13 Janet (be) very ill three years ago.

14 Rupert has left a message for you. He ................. (ring) last night.

15 (you / see) the news today? ~ No, not yet. I'll watch it at ten.

16 We moved here in 1993. We.................. (be) here a long time now.

16 The present perfect continuous


A Introduction

We use the present perfect continuous for an action (waiting). The action happens over a period of time (for twenty minutes). Here the period lasts up to the present - they are still waiting now.

B Form

The present perfect continuous is the present tense of have + been+ an ing-form.

I/you/we/they have been waitingor I/you/we/they've been waiting he/she/it has been waitingor he/she/it's been waiting


I/you/we/they haven't been waiting have I/you/we/they been waiting?

he/she/it hasn't been waiting has he/she/it been waiting?

We've been standing here for ages. It has been rainingall day.

Have you been waitinglong? Our team hasn't been doingvery well lately.

C Use

We use the present perfect continuous for an action over a period of time leading up to the present (see A). In these examples the action is still going on.

We've been waiting here for twenty minutes. (We're waiting now.)

Listen. That burglar alarm has been ringingsince eight o'clock this morning. We must use the perfect in these situations.

not We wait here for twenty minutes or We're waiting-here for twenty-minutes.

We can use the present perfect continuous to talk about repeated actions up to now.

Natasha has been playingthe piano since she was four. We can also use it to talk about an action which ends just before the present.

I've been swimming. That's why my hair is wet.

D For, since, how long and recently

We can use the present perfect continuous with forand since (see Unit 121).

My sister has been stayingwith me forthree weeks now.

You've been playingon that computer sinceseven o'clock. We use how longin questions.

How long have you been waiting?

Note also recentlyand lately.These both mean 'in the last few days or weeks'. I haven't been feeling very well recently.What haveyou been doing lately?

17 Present perfect continuous or simple? 121 Forand since

16 Exercises

1 Form (B)

Put in the verbs. Use the present perfect continuous.

Ilona: Sorry I'm late.

Emma: It's OK. (►) / haven't been waiting (I / not / wait) long.

What(l).. (you/do)?

Ilona: I've been with Mrs King. (2) ................. (she / help) me with my English.

Emma: Your English is very good. You don't need lessons, surely.

How long (3)............ (you / study) English?

Ilona: Er, eight years now. But my accent wasn't so good before I came to England.

(4) ........................ (I / try) to improve it.

Ithink (5)............... (it / get) better lately.

Emma: Your accent is fine, Ilona. Honestly.

2 Use(C)

Say what these people have been doing. Use these verbs: argue, cook, drive, wait, work

► Andrew is tired because he's been working all day.

1 Trevor and Laura are upset because.............. .

2 David is hot because....................... .

3 Mark feels very stiff because .................. .. all day.

4 Henry is annoyed.................... a long time for Claire.

3 Use(C-D)

What could you say in these situations? Write sentences with the present perfect continuous and a phrase with for. Use these verbs: play, read, swim, talk, travel, work

► A video is on. It began two hours ago, and it hasn't finished yet.
The video has been playing for two hours.

1 Matthew went into the water an hour ago. He doesn't want to come out yet.

2 Your friends started their journey around the world three months ago. They've gone about halfway now.

3 Mark got to the office early this morning. Ten hours later he's still there.

4 Melanie rang Rita forty minutes ago, and they're still on the phone.

5 Trevor has got an interesting book. He started it quite a long time ago. Ask him how long.

17 Present perfect continuous or simple?

A I have been doing or I have done?



Mike has been repairingthe car.

We use the present perfect continuous for an action happening over a period of time (see Unit 16). We are thinking of Mike doing the repair and getting oil on his hands.

Here are some more examples.

over a period (have been doing)

We've been touring Scotland. A strong wind has been blowingall day. Vicky is out of breath. She's been running.I've been writing an essay. I'm tired now.

We normally use the continuous form when we say how long.

Rachel has been playingmusic all day.

I've been ironing shirts since ten o'clock.

How long have you been learningto drive?

Mike has repairedthe car.

We use the present perfect simple for a complete action (see Unit 11). We are thinking of the finished repair and the result of the repair - that the car is all right now.

complete (have done)

We've finished our tour of Scotland. The wind has blowna tree over. Vicky is here at last. She's runall the way. I've written an essay. I can hand it in now

We normally use the simple form when we say how much/many.

Rachel has playedat least twentyCDs.

I've ironed eight shirts.

How many driving lessons haveyou had?

B States and actions

We cannot normally use the continuous form with a state verb (see Unit 7). I've known the secret for a long time, not I've been knowing the secret. My parents have hadthis car for about ten years. We've never beenvery happy here, I'm afraid.

Liveand work(= have a job) can be continuous or simple, with no difference in meaning. We've been livinghere since 1992. or We've livedhere since 1992.

Sarah has been workingfor the company for three years now. or Sarah has workedfor the company for three years now.

17 Exercises

1 I have been doing or I have done? (A)

Look at these conversations and put in the correct form of the verb. Use the present perfect continuous or simple.

► Sarah: I feel really tired.

Mark: It's because you've been doing (you / do) too much.

Sarah: Well, at least I've finished (I / finish) that report now, and I can relax.

1 David: Someone ............ (leave) the ladder outside, look.

Harriet: I expect that's Mike. (he / clean) the windows. I don't

think..................... (he/ finish) yet.

2 Laura: You've got mud on your shoes.

Trevor: It's all right, I'll take them off.................... (I / work) in the garden.

Laura: Yes, it looks a lot tidier. Well done.......... (you / do) a good job.

3 Tom: (I / hear) that you and Harriet are building a garage.

How long (you / do) that?

Mike: Oh, for about a month now. (we / do) ....................... about half of it.

2 I have been doing or I have done? (A)

What would you ask in these situations? Use the present perfect continuous or simple.

? Your friend is wearing glasses. You've never seen him with glasses on before. Ask him how long ...
How long have you been wearing glasses ?

? Nick is playing computer games. Ask him how many ...
How many computer games have you played ?


1 You meet a group of people walking across country. Ask them how many miles ...

2 Some workmen are digging up the road outside Sarah's house. Ask her how long ...

3 Laura is taking lots of photos of you and your friends. Ask her how many ...

4 You have just woken up from an afternoon sleep and seen that it is raining. Ask your friend how long ...

3 I have been doing or I have done? (A-B)

Completethe conversation. Put the verbs in the present perfect continuous or simple.

Laura: What are you doing, Trevor? (►) You've been (you / be) in here for ages. You're making an awful

Trevor: (1) (I / clear) out this cupboard most of the afternoon. There's a

lot of old stuff in here. (2) (I / find) these, look.

I aura: (3) (you / sit) there staring at those old boots for the last five

minutes. (4) ...... (I / watch) you.

(5) ....................... (you / be) in a dream.

Trevor: They're football boots. (6) (I / have) them since I was about

sixteen. (7) (they / be) in here for years.
Laura: Well, throw them away. And what about that tennis racket? Is that yours?
Trevor: No, it must be yours. (8) ..................... (I / never / have) a tennis racket.

18 The past perfect

A Introduction

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and 1 had beento a party the evening before. We hadn't goneto bed until after one. I hadn't beenon the train long when I had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that I'd leftmy wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. HadI leftit in the office the day before? I just couldn't remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

The situation is in the past (I took the train ... I felttired ...). When we talk about things before this past time, we use the past perfect.

Sarah and I had beento a party the evening before.

I'd left my wallet at home.

We are looking back from the situation of the train journey to the earlier actions - going to a party and leaving home without the wallet.

Here are some more examples of the past perfect. It was twenty to six. Most of the shops hadjust closed.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they hadalready soldall the tickets. By 1960 most of Britain's old colonies had becomeindependent.

As well as actions, we can use the past perfect to talk about states.

I felt better by the summer, but the doctor warned me not to do too much. I'd beenvery ill. The news came as no surprise to me. I'd knownfor some time that the factory was likely to close.

B Form

The past perfect is had+ a past participle.

He had enjoyedthe party, or He'd enjoyedthe party.

They hadn't goneto bed until late. Where hadhe puthis wallet? For irregular past participles see page 383.

C Present perfect and past perfect

Compare these examples.

present perfect (before now) past perfect (before then)

My wallet isn't here. I've leftit behind. My wallet wasn't there. I'd leftit behind.

The match is over. United have won.The match was over. United had won.

That man looks familiar. I've seenhim The man looked familiar. I'd seenhim

somewhere before. somewhere before.

19 Review of the past simple, continuous and perfect 20 The past perfect continuous

18 Exercises

1 The past perfect (A)

Read about each situation and then tick the right answer.

► Two men delivered the sofa. I had already paid for it.

Which came first, a) the delivery, or b) V the payment?

1 The waiter brought our drinks. We'd already had our soup.
Which came first, a) the drinks, or b) the soup?

2 I'd seen the film, so I read the book.

Did 1 first a) see the film, or b) read the book?

3 The programme had ended, so I rewound the cassette.

Did I rewind the cassette a) after, or b) before the programme ended?

4 I had an invitation to the party, but I'd arranged a trip to London.

Which came first, a) the invitation, or b) the arrangements for the trip?

2 The past perfect (A-B)

Add a sentence with the past perfect using the notes.

► Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.
She'd just been on holiday, (just / be on holiday)

1 We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

. (the train /just / go)

2 I didn't have an umbrella, but that didn't matter.

................................. (the rain / stop)

3 When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn't let me in.

......................... (forget / my ticket)

4 Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

.................................. (steal / it / a week before)

5 I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

.. (not see / her / for ages)

6 Luckily the flat didn't look too bad when my parents called in.

(just / clean / it)

7 The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

... (already / eat / my sandwiches)

3 Present perfect and past perfect (C)

Put the verbs in the present perfect (have done) or past perfect (had done).

? It isn't raining now. It's stopped (stop) at last.

? We had no car at that time. We'd sold (sell) our old one.


1 The park looked awful. People................ (leave) litter everywhere.

2 You can have that newspaper. I ............. (finish) with it.

3 There's no more cheese. We................ (eat) it all, I'm afraid.

4 There was no sign of a taxi, although I................ (order) one half an hour before.

5 This bill isn't right. They ............... (make) a mistake.

6 I spoke to Melanie at lunch-time. Someone ................ (tell) her the news earlier.

7 I was really tired last night. I................. (have) a hard day.

8 Don't you want to see this programme? It.................... (start).

9 It'll soon get warm in here. I................. (turn) the heating on.

10 At last the committee were ready to announce their decision.
They ................. (make) up their minds.

19 Review of the past simple, continuous and perfect

A Introduction

Read this true story. It happened some years ago.

A young man walkedinto a supermarket in Southampton and puta few items of food in a basket. He had chosena time when not many people were shoppingin the store. He founda checkout where no one else was waiting. When the cashier had checkedthe goods, the man gaveher a £10 note. When she opened the till, the man quickly snatchedall the money from it and ranout of the store before she realizedwhat was happening.At the time the security guard was standingat the other end of the store. When staff checkedthe records in the till, they foundthat the thief had takenonly £4.37. As he had leftthe £10 note behind, the operation had costhim £5.63.

B Comparison of tenses

We use the past simple to talk about the past (see Unit 8).

He snatchedthe money and ranaway. The past simple is used for the actions in the story, to tell us what happened next.

We use the past continuous (see Unit 9) for something around a past time or a past action.

At the time of the incident, not many people were shoppingin the store. The few customers were in the middle of doing their shopping.

We use the past perfect (see Unit 18) for things before a past situation.

Staff found that the thief had takenonly £4.37. The theft of the money happened before they found out how much.

C Past simple and past continuous

We often use these two forms together when a shorter action comes in the middle of a longer one (see Unit 10B).

/ was waiting at the checkout when I noticeda strange-looking man. Seeing the man came in the middle of the wait.

D Past simple and past perfect

When we use these two forms together, we use the past perfect for what happened earlier.

A man walkedinto a supermarket. He had chosena quiet time. The choice of the time came before the arrival in the supermarket.

In this example, one past action followed another.

He filledthe basket and wentto the checkout. We can also use either when ... had done,or after ... did/had done.

When he had filledthe basket, he wentto the checkout.

After he had filled(or After he filled)the basket, he wentto the checkout. But when one short action comes straight after another, we use the past simple for both.

When she openedthe till, he snatchedall the money out of it.

Note the different meanings.

When I switched the TV on, the programme started.I was just in time.

When I switched the TV on, the programme had started.I missed the beginning. We can use the past perfect or the past simple with beforeor until.There is no difference in meaning.

The man arrived at the store before it hadopened/before it opened.

The chairman didnt speak until he hadheard/until he heardall the arguments.

19 Exercises

1 Past simple, continuous and perfect (A-D)

Look at these sentences and then tick the right answer.

► David and Tom were talking together when a young woman spoke to them.

Which took more time, a) what David and Tom said, or b) what the woman said?

1 Mike had put up the tent, but Harriet was still unloading things from the car.
Which finished first, a) putting up the tent, or b) unloading?

2 Mark went home and switched off the computer.

What did he do first, a) go home, or b) switch off the computer?

3 When Claire arrived, Henry was walking up and down.

Which started earlier, a) Claire's arrival, or b) Henry's walking?

4 When Sarah had phoned the office, she drove to the hotel.

Did she phone the office a) before, or b) after driving to the hotel?

2 Past simple and past perfect (D)

Write the two sentences as one. Use when and the past perfect in either the first or the second part of the sentence.

► I took the book back to the library. I read it.

/ took the book back to the library when I'd read it.

► The students did the experiment. They wrote a report on it.

When the students had done the experiment, they wrote a report on it.

1 Nick saved enough money. He bought a motor bike.

2 Mark put all the dishes away. He dried them.

3 I looked both ways. I pulled out into the road.

4 The golfers went into the clubhouse. They played the last hole.

3 Past simple, continuous and perfect (A-D)

Daniel is telling the story of how he forgot his passport. Put the verbs into the correct form.

(►) /(happened (it / happen) last August at the airport. A few weeks before, a group of us

(1)............ (decide) to go to Greece together for a holiday.

(2) (we / wait) in the queue at passport control when suddenly

(3)(I / realize) that (4).............. (I / forget) my passport.

(5) (it / be) quite a shock. (6) (I / hurry) to a phone and

(7) .. (ring) my parents. (8) (they / work) in the garden,

but luckily my mother (9)................... (hear) the phone.

(10) .......... (they / find) the passport and immediately

(11).. ................. (drive) to the airport with it. (12)............... .. (] / meet) them at

the information desk. (13)..................... (we / have) no time to talk, but

(14).. (I / say) goodbye to them earlier that morning.

(15) (I / run) all the way to the plane. I was just in time. When

(16)..(I / get) there, the passengers (17)(sit) in their seats
ready for take-off. When (18) (they / see) me, everyone

(19)................ (start) clapping.

20 The past perfect continuous

A Introduction


David is talking about a situation in the past (Ifell and broke my leg). When we look back to something before this past time, we use the past perfect simple (see Unit 18) or the past perfect continuous.

Past perfect simple: 1 had taken a bus into town.

Past perfect continuous: / had been swimming in the pool

We use the past perfect continuous for an action which happened over a period of time. The swimming went on for some time before David broke his leg.

B Form

The past perfect continuous is had been+ an ing-form. / had been waiting ages, or I'd been waiting ages. I had not been paying attention, or / hadn't been

paying attention. Was the ground wet? Had it been raining?

C I had been doing or I had done?

Compare the past perfect continuous and simple.

over A period (had been doing)

/ found the calculator. I'd been looking for it

for ages. Vicky felt tired because she'd been working

all day.

We are thinking of Vicky's work going on as she got tired.

We normally use the continuous with a phrase saying how long.

When the company went bankrupt, it had been losing money for months.

We do not normally use the past perfect continuous for states (see Unit 7). not He had been-seeming unwell

complete (had done)

I finally bought a new calculator. I'd looked

everywhere for the old one. Vicky felt pleased because she'd doneso much

work. We are thinking of Vicky's work as complete.

We normally use the simple form with a phrase saying how much/many.

When the company went bankrupt, it hadlost over a million pounds.

We also use the past perfect simple for states (see Unit 7).

The old man hadseemed unwell for some time before he died.

D Comparison with other continuous forms

Compare the present perfect continuous (has/have been doing)and the past perfect continuous.

Vicky looks very upset. I think she's been crying.

Vicky looked very upset. I thought she'd been crying.Compare the past continuous (was doing)and the past perfect continuous.

When I phoned, Natasha was havinga piano lesson. (I phoned during the lesson.)

When I phoned, Natasha had been havinga piano lesson. (I phoned after the lesson.)

20 Exercises

1 Form (B)

Complete the conversation. Put in the past perfect continuous of the verbs.

Rachel: How was your job interview?

Vicky: Awful. I felt terribly nervous. (►) I'd been worrying (I / worry) about it all week. And I was tired

because (1).. (I / work) on my project the night before.

(2) ........... (I / not look) forward to the interview at all.

Rachel: So what happened?

Vicky: The woman interviewing me was half an hour late because

(3)......... ................... (she / deal) with an unexpected problem, she said.

(4) .................. (I / wait) ages, and I'd got even more nervous.

Rachel: How did the interview go?

Vicky: Well, I tried to sound confident. (5) .......... .. (I / read) a book that

said that's what you have to do in job interviews. But I don't know if I gave the right answers.

2 Form and use (A-B)

Add a sentence with the past perfect continuous to explain why. Look at the pictures to find the reasons.

► Claire got burnt. She'd been lying in the sun.

1 Vicky looked upset....................... .

2 Henry was stopped by the police....................... .

3 The children started a fire.............. ..

4 A young man was struck by lightning...........................

Comparison with other tenses (C-D)

Put in the correct form of the verbs.

► Tom could hear shouts from the flat next door. His neighbours were arguing (argue) again.

1 Emma went into the sitting-room. It was empty, but the television was still on.
Someone.................... (watch) it.

2 I ................. (play) tennis, so I had a shower. I was annoyed because

I . . (not win) a single game.

3 The walkers finally arrived at their destination. They............. (walk) all day, and
they certainly needed a rest. They................ (walk) thirty miles.

4 When I saw Nick last week, he said he................. (stop) smoking. But when I saw

him two days later, he.. (smoke) a cigarette. He looked rather ashamed.

5 I really must go and see the dentist. One of my teeth ....................... .. (ache) for weeks.

6 When Melanie arrived at David's place, he...................... . . (lie) on the sofa reading a

detective novel. He............ .. (buy) it at the second-hand bookshop, and

he ................. (read) it for most of the afternoon.

TEST 4 Past and perfect tenses (Units 16-20)

Test 4A

Read the conversation. Then look at the answers below and write the correct answer in each space.

Tessa: Hello, Robert. I (►) haven't seen you for ages.

Robert: Hello, Tessa. Great to see you. What have you (1) doing lately?

Tessa: (2).. just started a new job in computer software.

Robert: You (3). working for Tuffex Plastics when we last met.

Tessa: That's right. I hadn't (4).. working there long before I got fed up. 1

(5).. ........ realized what a horrible job it would be. But what about you?

(6). ............... you found a job?

Robert: Well, six months ago I (7) ............... working for a car hire company, but then

they (8) bankrupt. So I'm out of work now.

(9).............. been looking around for another job.

Tessa: Well, I'm sure you'll find one soon.

► a) didn't b) hadn't c) haven't d) wasn't

1 a) been b) had c) has d) was

2 a) I'd b) I'll c) I'm d) I've

3 a) did b) had c) have d) were

4 a) be b) been c) done d) had

5 a) didn't b) hadn't c) haven't d) wasn't

6 a) Did b) Had c) Have d) Were

7 a) been b) had c) have d) was

8 a) go b) going c) gone d) went

9 a) I'd b) I'll c) I'm d) I've

Test 4B

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.

► Susan had a green dress on. (wearing)
Susan was wearing a green dress.

1 The doctor began work at six o'clock and is still working, (has)

2 Rupert didn't have his credit card, (forgotten)

3 I didn't want to go without taking a photo, (until)

4 Nancy has been writing the report. It is finished now. (written)

5 My wait in the queue has lasted forty minutes so far. (I)

6 When we arrived, everyone was on the dance floor, (dancing)

7 The computer has been mine for four years, (had)

8 In the middle of our lunch there was a knock at the door, (when)

9 Nigel felt sick from eating too many cakes, (because)

Test 4C

Write the sentences correctly.

► I like this CD. I've been having it for ages.
I've had it for ages.

1 It was my first day back at work. I was on holiday.

2 I'm quite tired now. I play badminton

3 I had to sit down. I'd been havig a shock

4 You need a rest. How much have you been working?

5 The robbery happened at midday, Lots of people walked along the street outside.

6 My sister speaks good English. She is practising her English since last summer.

7 At last I have my qualification. :I've been passing my-exam.

8 Michelle looked really sunburnt. She'd lie in the sun-for-too long.

9 We got to the coach stop at nine yesterday. But the coach has already gone.

Test 4D

Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of each verb.

► A: Did you buy (you / buy) anything at the antiques sale yesterday?

B: No. / wanted (I / want) to buy some jewellery, but I'd left (I / leave) my credit card at home.

1 A: Are you still copying those addresses?

B: No, that's all of them................ (I / finish) now.

2 A: The train is never going to get here.

B: How long........... (we / wait) now?

A: At least half an hour.................. . (we / be) here since ten to five.

3 A: Did you have a nice chat with Tessa?

B: No, not really. When............... (we / drink) our coffee,

........................ (she / hurry) off home.

4 A: It's terrible about that plane crash, isn't it?

B: Yes, awful................ (I / have) breakfast when

..(I / hear) the news.

5 A: So you sing in a rock band, do you? How long............ (you / do) that?

B: Oh, since I was sixteen. ..................... .. (we / do) about a dozen concerts.

6 A: Do you know what Polly was so upset about yesterday?

B: No, I don't. But I'm sure ..(she / cry). Her eyes looked red.

A: Perhaps ................... (she / have) some bad news.

7 A: The shooting was very frightening, I suppose.

B: It certainly was. When we......... ... (hear) the shot,

we all ..................... (throw) ourselves to the floor.

21 Review of present and past tenses

A Introduction

Study the verb forms.

Claire is ready to go on safari.

Present continuous: She is waitingfor her guide.

Present simple: She goeson holiday a lot.

Present perfect: She has boughta safari suit.

Present perfect continuous: She has been planningher

trip for months.

Past simple: She boughtthe suit last week.

Past continuous: She was goingpast Harrods when

she saw it in the window.
Past perfect: She hadalready decidedthat she

needed a safari suit. Past perfect continuous: She had been lookingfor one

for a week or two.

B I am doingor I do?(Unit 6)


We use the present continuous for an action now, We use the present simple for repeated actions,

something we are in the middle of. things that happen again and again.

/ am writing a letter. ] writehome every week.

Claire is wearinga safari suit. Tom never wearssmart clothes.

We're gettinglunch now. We usually getlunch at about one.

We use the present continuous for a feeling over a We normally use the present simple for thought;

short period of time. and feelings, and for states and permanent facts.

Vicky is likingher course much better this year. Claire likesholidays.

Four times twelve makesforty-eight.

We use the present continuous for a temporary We use the present simple for a permanent

situation or routine. situation or routine.

I'm very busy at the moment, so I'm gettingup I usually getup quite late,

early this week.

C I have done or I did?(Units 14-15)


The present perfect tells us about the past and the The past simple tells us about the past, a time

present. which is finished.

They have lockedthe door. No one can get in. They lockedthe door at ten o'clock last night.

We use the present perfect for a state which has We use the past simple for a state in the past,
gone on up to the present.

I've known him for ages. He's an old friend. I knewhim when we were at college together.

We use the present perfect for actions in a period We use the past simple for actions in the past,
of time up to the present.

/ have seen the carnival several times. I sawthe carnival several times as a child.

D I have been doing or I have done? (Unit 17)


We use the present perfect continuous for an We use the present perfect simple for a complete

action over a period of time leading up to the action. We are thinking of the result.

present. We are thinking of the action going on.

Daniel's tired. He's been working.At least he's earnedsome money.

I've been readingall afternoon. I've read200 pages.

We've been stayinghere for a week/since Thursday.

E I was doing or I did? (Unit 10)


We use the past continuous for an action that we We use the past simple for a complete action in
were in the middle of. the past or for a past state.

/ was reading the paper at half past ten. I leftthe house at half past ten.

Vicky hada headache.

We often use the past continuous and simple together when a shorter action (simple) comes in the middle of a longer one (continuous).

We were lookingfor the coffee bar when we metEmma. But we use two past simple verbs for one action after another.

When we sawRachel, she wavedto us.

F I did or I had done? (Units 18-19)

We use the past simple to talk about a past situation and the past perfect for things that happened earlier. I threwthe magazine away. I'd finishedwith it. When Sarah foundthe letter, someone hadalready openedit. When the new people movedin, the house had beenempty for a year.

We can use when ... had doneto say that one thing finished and then something else happened.

When we'd paidthe bill,we leftthe restaurant. But when one short action comes straight after another, we use the past simple for both.

When the firework wentoff, the dog ranaway.

Compare these two sentences.

When we arrived, the others all left.(We arrived and then they left.) When we arrived, the others hadall left.(They left before we arrived.)

G I had been doing or I had done? (Unit 20)

We use these forms when we look back from a situation in the past.


We use the past perfect continuous for an action We use the past perfect simple for a complete

over a period of time. We are thinking of the action. We are thinking of the result,

action going on.

Emma's hand ached because she'd been usingHer work looked really neat because she'd used

the computer. the computer.

When I finally served the meal, I'd been cookingI felt quite proud that I'd cookeda meal for

for'hours. eight people.

21 Exercises

1 Present tenses (A-D)

Complete the sentences using the notes in brackets. The verbs can be present continuous (am doing), present simple (do) or present perfect (have done).

► We bought this picture a long time ago. We've had it (we / have / it) for ages.

1 Sarah finds her mobile phone very useful .. (she / use / it) all the time.

2 Vicky doesn't know where her watch is.. (she / lose / it).

3 We're in the middle of decorating our kitchen, so we can't cook any meals.

..(we / get / them) from a take-away restaurant this week.

4 Claire is on a skiing holiday.. (she / enjoy / it), she says on her postcard.

5 The colour of this paint is absolutely awful................. (I/hate/it).

6 These figures certainly should add up.. (I / check / them) several times already.

7 Trevor and Laura like Scrabble...................... .. (they / play / it) most evenings.

8 These flowers are dying.................. (you / not water / them) for ages.

2 Present tenses (A-D)

Read about each situation. What else do you say? Use the verb in brackets.

► You can't go out with a friend because you have a Saturday job. (work)
I'm sorry. I work on Saturdays.

1 You have just met a friend you last saw months ago. (not see)
Hello! How are you? .....................

2 Someone has arranged to phone you at this time, and you're ready for the call, (wait)
I have to stay by the phone....................

3 Your friend is wearing a very nice jacket you haven't seen before, (like)

Oh, that's nice...............................

4 You are watching the snow fall. It started yesterday and is still falling, (snow)
I can't believe it.........................

3 Present and past tenses (A-F)

Read about each situation and then tick the right answer.

► When we were talking, Tom left the room.

Which took longer, a) our conversation, or b) Tom's departure?

1 Mark has been a member of the golf club for two years.

a) He joined the club two years ago and is still a member.

b) He was a member of the club for two years but is not a member now.

2 Vicky is watching the weather forecast.

The weather forecast a) hasn't started yet, b) has started but not finished, or c) is over.

3 I've switched off the burglar alarm.

Do I think that the alarm a) is off, b) is on, or c) may be on or off?

4 I've been studying all afternoon, and I've got a headache.

Am I thinking of a) how much I have learned, or b) the action going on for a long time?

5 We had already travelled some distance when the sun rose.

Did our journey start a) before sunrise, b) at sunrise, or c) after sunrise?

6 I'm going to work by bus this week.

a) 1 always go to work by bus. b) My routine is different for this week.

4 Present and past tenses (C-E)

Put in a pronoun and the correct form of the verb. Use the past continuous (was doing), the past simple (did) or the present perfect continuous (have been doing).

► Mark: I rang at one, but you weren't in your office. Sarah: No, / was having (have) lunch.

1 David: You look tired.

Melanie: Yes, I expect I do.. (work) all day.

2 Sarah: Is Laura at home?

Trevor: No, (go) out about half an hour ago.

3 Vicky: I haven't finished this letter yet.

Rachel: It must be a long letter. ............ . (write) it since lunch-time.

4 Harriet: I see you've got some new neighbours.

Tom Yes, a young couple.. (move) in last month.

5 David: Did Tom drive you home?

Melanie: Yes,.................... (stop) and offered me a lift

while............. (wait) for a bus outside the town hall.

5 Present and past tenses (A-G)

Complete the conversation. Choose the correct form.

Melanie: How (►) are you getting/do you get on in your new job, Nick?

Nick: Oh, so (1) you know/you're knowing about my job as a car salesman.

Melanie: (2) David's told/David told me yesterday.

Nick: Well, I (3) haven't been/wasn't in the job long. (4) I started/I've started on Monday.

Melanie: And how many cars (5) have you been selling/have you sold so far?

Nick: Well, none yet. Give me a chance. Up to now (6) I've been learning/I've learned all the time.

Melanie: David says you (7) had/were having a sports car once.

Nick: I've still got it. (8) I had/I've had it for about five years. (9) I don't often drive/I'm not often

driving it because (10) I don't like/I'm not liking getting it dirty. Normally (11) I ride/I'm riding my motor bike. And the car is expensive to run. 1(12) bought/had bought it on impulse. I (13) was working/worked on a building site at the time. For several months before I bought it, (14) I'd done/I'd been doing overtime, and when (15) I'd been earning/I'd earned enough to buy a car, it was a really magical moment. Maybe you'd like a ride in it some time?

Melanie: Oh, yes please. That would be lovely.

6 Present and past tenses (A-G)

Complete the radio news report. Put in the correct forms of the verbs.

Hello. This (►) is (be) Kitty Beamish. (1).. (I / speak) to you from Oxford,

where the finals of the World Quiz Championships will be held tomorrow. The favourite is Claude

Jennings of Cornwall, the man who (2) ............... (know) everything. Twelve months

ago no one (3) ............ (hear) of Claude lennings, although

(4) .(he / take) part in quiz competitions for years. Now suddenly he is a big

star. So far this year (5).. (he / answer) every single question correctly. And he

is popular, too. When (6).. (he / arrive) here two days ago, hundreds of fans

(7). (wait) at the station to welcome him. Since his arrival Claude

(8) (read) encyclopedias in his hotel bedroom. He is clearly the man to

watch. And now back to the news desk.

TEST 5 Present and past tenses (Unit 21)

Test 5A

Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of each verb. ► A: Are you ready?

B: I won't be a moment. I'm doing (I / do) my hair.

1 A: Could you tell me your address?

B: Well,.. (I / live) in a friend's house at the moment.

Luckily.......... . ....................... (I / find) a place of my own now, but I can't

move in until next week.

2 A: Is this your CD?

B: No, it isn't mine..................... (I / think)(it / belong)

to Peter.

3 A: Can I borrow your calculator, please?

B: Well, ......... (I / use) it to work out these figures at the

moment............... (I / want) to finish doing them, now

that. (I / start).

4 A: Why can't you wash your dirty plates sometimes? ............. . (you / leave)

them in the sink most of the time.

B: OK, sorry. The last few weeks ..................... (I / have) so little

time................ (I / rush) around all the time.

Test 5B

Read the story and write the missing words. Use one word only in each space.

One day a man was (►) walking past a house in Bournemouth when he (1)......a

woman's voice shouting for help. The man (2) .................... . someone

(3) probably trying to murder her. He ran to a phone box and

(4) the police. The police came quite quickly, but by now the shouting had

(5) . However, the man (6)......... . quite sure that he

(7) heard cries for help. When the police (8).. on the

door, there was no answer. So they broke down the door and went in. Inside the house was a woman who
had just (9).. out of the shower. She explained to the police that she had

(10) singing along to the Beatles song 'Help!'.

Test 5C

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Begin with the word in brackets. ► Our trip to Africa was in October. (We ...) We went to Africa in October.

1 We've had ten hours of rain. (It...)

2 It's the right thing to do in my opinion. (I ...)

3 Our sofa is in a different place now. (We ...)

4 It was breakfast-time when Susan rang. (I ...)

5 Their game of badminton is always on Tuesday. (They ...)

 :Structures with for, since and last (C)  :Test 5F
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