282 . 988


C First time, second time, etc   627

After It's/This is the first/second time,we use the present perfect. This is the first time we've beento Scotland, so it's all new to us. This is the second timeRachel has forgottento give me a message. I love this film. I think it's the fourth timeI've seenit.

D Today, this week, etc

We use the present perfect with todayand phrases with this, e.g. this morning, this week, this year.

We've donequite a lot of work today.

I haven't watched any television so far this week.

Have you hada holiday this year?~ No, not yet. This yearis the period which began in January and has lasted up to the present time.

14-15 Present perfect or past simple?

13 Exercises

1 Gone to or been to? (A)

Complete the conversation. Put in gone or been. Emma: Hi. Where's Rachel?

Vicky: She's (►) gone to the supermarket to get something for a meal.

Emma: But I've got some chicken for tonight. I've just (1).. to a supermarket on

my way home, that new place near the station.

Natasha: I haven't (2). . to that one yet.

Vicky: Where's Jessica? Isn't she here?

Emma: No, she's (3) to London. She'll be back tomorrow.

2 Everand never (B)

Write the questions and answers. Use the information in brackets.

► Matthew: (sailing?) Have you ever been sailing?

Natasha: (no, windsurfing) No, I've never been sailing, but I've been windsurfing.

1 Laura: (San Francisco?)

Mark: (no, Los Angeles) ........


2 Tom: (basketball?)

Trevor: (no, volleyball) ..................... ..


3 Daniel: ('Hamlet'?)

Vicky: (no,'Macbeth')


3 First time, second time,etc (C)

Whatwould you say in these situations? Use time and the present perfect.

► You are watching a cricket match. You have never seen one before.
This is the first time I've seen a cricket match.

1 You have lost your bank card. It has happened once before.
This is

2 The washing-machine has broken down. This has happened twice before.

3 You are in England for the first time in your life.

4 You are staying in a hotel where you once stayed before.

5 You have missed the bus. You've done the same thing about four times before.

4 Today, this week,etc (D)

Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect.

► Mark buys a newspaper most mornings, but he hasn't bought one this morning.

1 I see Vicky most days, but ..................

2 We go to the club most weekends, but........

3 We usually have a party each term, but ..

4 Someone usually rings in the evening, but no one

14 Present perfect or past simple? (1)



The present perfect tells us about the past and the present. United have won the Cup, so it's theirs now.

The past simple tells us about the past, a time which is finished. Last year is in the past.

We use the past simple (not the present perfect) to talk about times in the past such as yesterday, last week, in 1994, a hundred years ago.

We watchedUnited last week, not We have watched United last week.

Long ago dinosaurs livedhere. NOT Long ago dinosaurs have lived here.

Here are some more examples.

I've dropped my calculator. (It's on the floor now.) I droppedmy calculator, but it seems to be OK.


Emma has packedher case.

(So her things are in the case now.)

Mike has repairedthe chair.

(So it's all right now.)

The plane hasjust landed.

I've turned the heating on. (It's on now.)


Emma packedher case last night.

(Her things may be unpacked now.)

Mike repairedthe chair.

(It may be broken again now.)

The plane landedten minutes ago.

I turnedthe heating on earlier, but it's off again now.

6 I've done it. I did it yesterday.

Trevor: We've boughta new car.

Tom: Oh, have you? What sort?

Laura: An Adagio. We boughtit last week.

We often give a piece of news in the present perfect, e.g. We've bought a new car. (The car is ours now.) We use the past simple, e.g. We bought it last week, to give details or to ask for details about things such as when and where it happened.

Here are some more examples.

I've found my wallet. ~ Oh, good. Where didyou findit?

Your parcel has arrived.The postman broughtit at eight o'clock.

They've closedthe factory. ~ Really? When didthey dothat?

C Structures with for, since and last




We can say that something hasn't happened for a long time or since a specific time in the past.

We haven't hada party forages.

We haven't hada party sinceChristmas.

We can say that it is a long time since something happened or when was the last time it happened.

It's ages sincewe last hada party.

Christmas was the last timewe hada party.

14 Exercises

1 I have done or I did?(A)

Put in the correct verb form.

? I've done (I / do) all the housework. The flat is really clean now.

? A young couple bought (buy) the house next door. But they didn't live there long.


1 Our visitors. (arrive). They're sitting in the garden.

2 There's still a problem with the television. Someone ....................... (repair) it,

but then it broke down again.

3 (I / lose) my bank card. I can't find it anywhere.

4 The match .. (start). United are playing well.

5 My sister.. (run) away from home. But she came back two days later.

6 Daniel.. (earn) some money last week. But I'm afraid he's already spent it all.

..(we / plant) an apple tree in the garden. Unfortunately it died.

8 Prices. (go) up. Everything is more expensive this year.

9 Someone. (turn) on the hi-fi. What's that song called?


10 (I / phone) the office at eleven to speak to the manager, but he isn't there today.

11 (I / make) a cake. Would you like a piece?

12 The runner Amos Temila (break) the world record for the 1500 metres in
Frankfurt. Then two days later in Helsinki, Lee Williams ran it in an even faster time.

2 I've done it. I did it yesterday. (B)

Things that have happened today are on the radio and TV news. Give the news using the present perfect and past simple.

► the Prime Minister / visit Luton University / speak to students there / earlier today
The Prime Minister has visited Luton University. He spoke to students there earlier today.

1 the train drivers / go on strike / stop work / at twelve o'clock

2 the Queen / arrive in Toronto / fly there / in an RAF aircraft

3 two men / escape from Parkhurst Prison / get away / during the night

4 the actor Howard Bates / die in a car accident / his car / crash into a wall

5 Linda [ones / win the women's marathon / run it / in 2 hours 27 minutes

 :For and since (B)  :Structures with for, since and last (C)
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