Sources of language history. Inner and outer history of the language. 616
Sources of the language history:
-written records of different periods;
-facts of prewritten history in the works of ancient historians and georaphers;
-early borrowings from Germanic made by other languages.
Statics and dynamics in language history. Causes of language evolution.
Many features of the language remain static in the diachrony: they do not alter through time. These are permanent, universal properties: ivision into vowels and consonants, the parts of speech, the parts of the sentence. In addition to these universal properties, English has many stable characteristics: some parts of the vicabulary, many ways of word-formatuin, some grammatical categories.
There are also other categories in the language which undergone profound changes. These are called dynamics. The proportion of stable and changeable features varies at different historical periods and different linguistic levels.
Linguistic changes are usually slow and gradual. Different linguistic levels develop at different rates.
Causes of language evolution lie both within the linguistic system (balance of the system or its symmetrical structural arrangement produces pressure) or outside it (social conditions, events in external history).