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Личности и ситуации  Просмотрен 250

В этом неполном списке великих идей моя последняя истина, также имеющая оборотную сторону, гласит: люди и ситуации взаимодействуют. Доказательство этого мы можем видеть прежде всего в том огромном влиянии, которое общество оказывает на наше поведение. Мы являемся созданиями наших социальных миров.

Вспомните то, что мы говорили об исследованиях конформизма, ролевых игр, убеждений и группового влияния. Самые драматичные открытия делаются в экспериментах, в которых людей с хорошими намерениями помещают в дурные ситуации, чтобы проверить, что пересилит: зло или добро. Увы, но слишком часто давление зла пересиливает добрые намерения, вынуждая людей соглашаться с обманом или капитулировать перед жестокостью. Столкнувшись лицом к лицу с обстоятельствами, оказывающими на них мощное воздействие, хорошие люди ведут себя не так уж хорошо. Большинство из нас способны быть и добрыми и грубыми; и мудрыми и глупыми; и свободными и подчиняющимися — все дело в социальном контексте. Большинство семинаристов не останавливались, чтобы помочь стонущему человеку, когда их заставляли торопиться на диспут о добром самарянине (Darley & Batson, 1973). Внешние социальные силы формируют наше социальное поведение.

Социально-психологическая идея о том, что есть силы большие, чем отдельный человек, соответствует религиозной идее о трансцендентных силах добра и зла, Бога и Дьявола. Зло — это не только гнилые яблоки тут и там. Оно также продукт «власти и мощи» разрушительных сил, которые могут испортить весь мешок с яблоками. А поскольку зло бывает не только индивидуальное, но и коллективное, ответ ему находится в религиозной жизни общества.

Хотя ситуации иногда могут пересилить индивидуальные диспозиции, социальные психологи не рассматривают человека как пассивное перекати-поле, носимое из стороны в сторону социальными ветрами. Оказываясь в одной и той же ситуации, разные люди реагируют по-разному в зависимости от их личных качеств, черт и культуры. Ощущая давление, они в ответ стремятся восстановить свою свободу. Будучи численно в меньшинстве, они могут противостоять большинству и перетягивать его на свою сторону. Веря в себя и сохраняя внутренний локус контроля, они могут творить чудеса. Более того, люди выбирают для себя и те ситуации, в которых они оказываются,— окружение в колледже, на работе, в местах проживания. А социальные ожидания могут самореализовываться в тех случаях, когда мы ожидаем от людей дружелюбного или враждебного поведения и они начинают вести себя соответствующим образом. Если учитывать все вышесказанное, вывод напрашивается сам собой: мы сами являемся творцами наших социальных миров.

Для большинства религиозных традиций это звучит правдиво. Мы морально ответственны за то, как используем дарованную нам свободу. Наши решения кое-что значат. Поток причинных связей из прошлого в будущее управляется нами — все зависит от нашего выбора.

Столкнувшись с этими парами взаимодополняющих идей, рассматриваемых в рамках либо психологии, либо религии, мы похожи на упавшего в глубокую яму человека, к которому спускаются две веревки. Если мы ухватимся за какую-то одну из них, то провалимся еще глубже. Но, ухватившись за обе, мы сможем выбраться наружу, потому что там, наверху, где мы не можем видеть веревки, они намотаны на барабан. Попытка ухватиться только за одну веревку — рациональности или иррациональности, самовозвеличивающей гордыни или самоуничижения, установки или поведения, персональной или ситуационной причинной связи — швырнет нас на самое дно. Поэтому мы хватаемся за обе веревки, возможно, даже до конца не понимая, каким образом они связаны вместе. Поступая так, мы можем утешиться тем, что и в науке, и в религии путаница в восприятии сложных принципов иногда честнее, чем упрощенная теория, игнорирующая половину фактов. А острый край ножниц истины лежит между лезвий инь и ян.

 

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