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V. Translate the text into English.

Джозеф Мэллорд Уильям Тернер был типичным романти­ком. К нему рано пришло признание. С пятнадцатилетнего воз­раста он участвовал в ежегодных выставках Королевской Акаде­мии искусств. Жизнь Тернера полна загадок. В свои много­численные путешествия Тернер часто уезжал тайно.

Наследие художника велико: более 21000 произведений на исторические, мифологические, жанровые сюжеты, но главное - пейзажи. Он тщательно изучал природу. Тернеру были нужны лишь некоторые стороны видимой реальности, от которой могла отталкиваться его фантазия, создающая пейзаж, существующий только в его воображении. Стихией Тернера было море, движе­ние туч, бушующие стихии. Передача световых эффектов, возни­кающих во влажной атмосфере были главной его задачей. Тер­нера интересовали мгновенные изменения в природе, впечат­ление от света и воздуха, поиск передачи которого через не­сколько десятков лет захватят целое поколение живописцев.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Turner's mode of life and system of production.

2. Turner's style and colour.

3. Turner's artistic influence.

UNIT IX COURBET (1819-1877)

The most aggressive apostle of the new school was Gustave Courbet. Born in the bleak village of Ornans in the mountainous region of eastern France, he came to Paris determined to create a lasting effect on the art of the capital, not only through his devo­tion to concrete reality, but also through his study of the art of the past. Courbet was a strong republican and champion of working-class rights and ideas. Courbet wanted his art to embody his ideas concerning society.

At the start Courbet was completely consis­tent. "The art of painting should consist only in the representation of objects which the artist can see and touch..." he declared; "I hold that the artists of the century are completely incapable of reproducing the things of a preceding or a future century... It is for this reason I reject history painting when applied to the past. His­tory painting is essentially contemporary."

Courbet's paintings were concerned with events of his own time. The Stone Breakers, of 1849, fully embodied his artistic and social principles, and caused a scandal when it was exhibited at the Salon of 1850. A public accustomed to the grandiloquence of the Neo-classicists and the Romanticists did not understand such a direct and hard study of reality. Courbet depicted the dehumanis­ing labour of breaking stones into gravel for road repairs, under­taken by an old man and a boy with perfect dignity. Proudhon, a Socialist writer, called it a parable from the Gospels. The simplic­ity of the relief-like composition is deeply Classical. Yet its objec­tivity betrays Courbet's own devotion to the new art of photogra­phy, which he practised as an amateur. The power of Courbet's compositions was matched by the workmanliness of his methods. His paint was first laid on with the palette knife. When the knife-work was dry, he worked up the surface with effects of light and colour with a brush, but it is the underlying palette-knife con­struction that gives his figures their density and weight.

In the same Salon of 1850 Courbet showed A Burial at Ornans, which fulfilled his requirements for true history painting. The inescapable end of an ordinary inhabitant of the village is repre­sented with sober realism. Accompanied by altar boys, pallbearers, and women the parish priest reads the Office for the Dead before the open grave, around which stand family and friends some with handkerchiefs to their eyes. The canvas, about twenty-two feet long, was so large that the artist could not step back in his studio to see the whole work. In a great S-curve in depth, the figures stand with the simple dignity of the Apostles in Masaccio's Tribute Money. Locked between the rocky escarpment above and the grave beneath, these people realise their destiny is bound to the earth, yet they seem to comprehend and to accept their fate. Each face is painted with all of Courbet's dignity and sculptural density recalling the prophets of Donatello.

This is one of the strongest and noblest works of all French painting.

In 1855 Courbet's paintings were rejected by the Universal Exposition. These works included the Burial and a more recent programme work The Studio: A Real Allegory Concerning Seven Years of My Artistic Life, painted in 1854-55. A special shed for a large exhibition of Courbet's paintings, including the rejected works was constructed. The artist called this building The Pavilion of Realism. For the catalogue he wrote a preface setting forth the principles of his art. In The Studio the relationship between artist and sitters as seen by Velazquez and Goya is exactly reversed Instead of playing a subsidiary role at one side, the artist displays himself in the centre, at work on a completely visible landscape, similar to those that adorn the walls of the dim studio. A model who has just shed her clothes, probably representing Truth Iooks on approvingly, her figure is beautifully revealed in light. The group at the left remains obscure, but it comprises figures drawn from "society at its best, its worst, and its average," with whom the painter had come into contact. Few of the figures look at the artist; all are silent. Delacroix called the picture a masterpiece, reproaching the jury for having "refused one of the most remark­able works of our times."

When Courbet reached material success, something of the rude power of his early works vanished from his portraits of the French aristocracy.

After the revolution of 1870 Courbet joined the short-lived Paris Commune, and took part in the commission that decreed the dismantling of the Colonne Vendome. For this he was sentenced under the Third Republic to six months in prison, which he spent in painting still lifes of extraordinary clarity and simplicity and landscapes from photographs. Later he was charged a huge sum for rebuilding the monument, fled to Switzerland, and died in ex­ile, his belongings were sold by the authorities to pay the debt.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Courbet [kü@Pbei]; Paris Commune [Pp{ris Pkomjün]; Swit­zerland [Pswits@l@nd]; Ornans [Pþn{n]; mountainous [Pmauntin@s]: subsidiary [s@bPsidj@ri]; pavilion [p@Pvilj@n]; exile [Peksail]; France [frÓns]; obscure [@bPskju@]; escarpment [iPskÓpm@nt]; extraordinary [ikPstrþdnri]; catalogue [k{t@log]; amateur [P{m@t@]; requirements [riPkwaim@nts]; dehumanising [diPhjüm@naizrn]; region [PrÖdÆ@n]


The Stone Breakers - "Каменотесы"

A Burial at Ornans - "Похороны в Орнане"

The Studio: A Real Allegory Concerning Seven Years of My Artistic Life - "Ателье: реальная аллегория, определяющая семилетний период моей художественной жизни"

The Pavilion of Realism - "Павильон реализма"

The Universal Exposition - Всемирная выставка

Office for the Dead - заупокойная служба


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.

1. Courbet favoured Neo-classicism.

2. Courbet's art embodied the High Renaissance ideals.

3. Courbet's pictures dealt with historical events.

4. Goya had a strong impact on Courbet's works of art.


A special shed for a large exhibition of Courbet's paint­ings was called The Pavilion of Realism.

6. Courbet set forth the principles of his art in a special monograph.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. How was Gustav Courbet characterised? What did he de­termine to create when he came to Paris? What were Courbet's ideas concerning art? What paintings did the Parisian public fa­vour at that time?

2. What subjects did Courbet prefer to paint? Did the public understand The Stone Breakers. What is depicted in this painting? What does its objectivity betray? What methods did Courbet use to achieve the effect? How did Proudhon call this work of art?

3. What Courbet's work of art fulfilled his requirements for true history painting? What does it represent? What does the ar­rangement of the figures recall? What did Courbet want to ex­press by placing the figures within these landscape limits? How did Courbet paint the faces? What makes this canvas one of the strongest and noblest works of all French painting?

4. What happened in 1855? What is depicted in The Studio Why did Courbet show the relationship between the artist and the sitters in such an unconventional way? What does the nude model symbolise? How did Courbet group the figures? What did De­lacroix say about this painting?

5. What did Courbet do during and after the revolution of 1870? Why was Courbet imprisoned? What did Courbet do when he was in prison?

6. What happened to Courbet later in life?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of tlie following phrases:

to remain obscure; the representation of objects; a champion of working-class rights; to embody the ideas; to reject history painting; the paintings are concerned with events of; to practise as an amateur; dehumanising labour; to lay paint on with a palette knife; the inescapable end; an ordinary inhabitant; altar boys; pallbearers; the parish priest; simple dignity; sculptural density recalling the prophets; in exile; the rocky escarpment; a parable from the Gospels.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

оставаться в тени; отвергать историческую живопись; из­ложить принципы реализма; скалистая стена; в ссылке; скульп­турная масса, напоминающая пророков; неизбежный конец; при­ходской священник; евангельская притча; защитник прав рабоче­го класса; простой деревенский житель; изображение предметов; поддерживающий концы покрова (на похоронной процессии); мальчик, прислуживающий в алтаре; наносить краску шпателем; воплотить идеалы реализма.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) escarpment; extraordinary; amateur; betray; destiny; to de­cree; dismantle;

b) non-professional; fate; exceptional; wall; reveal; break down; to announce.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Courbet's works of art. Match them up to the titles given below.

1. The artist placed himself in the centre, at work on a com­pletely visible landscape.

2. The inescapable end of an ordinary inhabitant of the village is represented with sober realism.

3. The simplicity of this relief-like composition is deeply clas­sical.

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