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Will and shall  Просмотрен 346



Weuse willto say what we know or think about the future. Willhere has a neutral meaning. It does not express the idea that we have already decided to do something or that we are planning something.

B Will for instant decisions

We also use willfor an instant decision, when we decide on something or agree to do it more or less at the moment of speaking.

I'm thirsty. I think I'll makesome tea.

not l make some-tea.

You've left your computer on. ~ Oh, I'llgo and switch it off.

We must celebrate. I know, we'll havea party.

I don't think I'll doany work tonight. I'm too tired. We also use it to order things.

I'll have the ham salad, please.

We also use willin offers and invitations (see Unit 51).
Offer: I'll peel the potatoes. ~ Oh, thank you.

Invitation: Will you cometo lunch? ~ Yes, thank you. I'd

love to. Promise: I'll pay you back next week.


C The form of will

The form is willor '11.

The west will haverain tomorrow. You'll be late if you don't hurry. Will you beat home this evening? The world will endin the year 2050. The negative is will notor won't.

The cost will not bemore than £50. I won't havetime for a meal.

D Shall

Wecan use shallfor the future, but only in the first person, after Ior we.

/ will be/I shall be on holiday in August.

We will know/We shall knowthe results soon. But not Everyone shall know the results-seen.

I willand I shallhave the same meaning here, but shallis a little formal. Both I willand I shallcan be shortened to I'll,which is pronounced /ail/.

I'll be on holiday in August. (= I will OR I shall)

Shallhas other meanings. We can use it in offers and suggestions (see Unit 51).
Offer: Shall I packup your shopping for you? ~ Oh, thank you.

Suggestion: Shall we all goout together? ~ Good idea. We do not use shallin American English (see page 377).

25 Will and be going to 28 Will be doing 29 A Will have done 144 Will in conditionals


23 Exercises

1 Willfor the future and for instant decisions (A-B)

Read the conversations. Which replies are statements about the future and which are instant decisions?

► What would you like? ~ I'll have an orange juice, please. decision

1 Shall we go out tonight? ~ I'll be too tired, I think.

2 We've lost a tennis ball. ~ I'll help you look for it.

3 I'm worried about the exam. ~ Oh, you'll be all right.

4 I haven't got any transport. ~ Oh, we'll give you a lift.

5 I must fix this shelf some time. ~ We'll be dead before then.

2Instant decisions (B)

Say what your decision is in these situations, or what you offer to do. Use these verbs: answer, carry, have, post, shut

► You and your friend have come into the room. The window is open, and it is cold.
/'// shut the window.

1 The phone is ringing. You are the nearest person to it.

2 The choice on the menu is fish or chicken. You hate fish.

3 You are meeting a friend at the station. He has two suitcases. There's a bag, too.

4 Your friend has written a letter. You are going to walk into town past the post office.

3 Willand won'tfor the future (C)

Use the notes to write about what will happen next weekend.
► it / be / warm / tomorrow It will be warm tomorrow.

1 Tom / watch / the match

2 Harriet's party / be / fun

3 Trevor / not put up / the shelves

4 Laura / be / annoyed

5 Andrew / study / all weekend

6 Rachel / not do / any work

4 Willand shall (A, D)

Complete the conversation. Put in will or shall.

Rachel: What (►) shall we do today?

Vicky: It would be nice to go out somewhere. The forecast says temperatures

(1) ........................ rise to thirty degrees.

Jessica: (2) .............. we go for a walk?

Rachel: That sounds a bit boring. What about the seaside? We could get a bus.

Jessica: How much (3) ...................... it cost? I haven't got very much money.

Vicky: It isn't far. It doesn't cost much.

Jessica: Everywhere (4).......... be so crowded today because it's a holiday. The journey

(5) ............ take ages.

Rachel: Come on, Vicky. (6) we leave Jessica behind if she's going to be so

miserable?


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