Single measurement on the graduated scales 253
Sequence of performance of single measurement on the graduated scales of intervals and the relations. Options of use of aprioristic information. Amending.
The majority of technical measurements are straight lines single. Direct single measurements carry out in cases, if: there is no possibility of repeated measurements, at measurements there can be a destruction of object of measurement, economic feasibility takes place.
At direct single measurements use a unique value of counting of instrument readings. Being casual, single counting x includes tool, methodical and personal making errors of measurement, in each of which systematic and casual components can be allocated. Therefore before measurement the aprioristic assessment making errors with use of all available data should be defined. At definition of confidential borders of an error of result of measurements the confidential probability is accepted, as a rule, equal 0,95. The standard regulated the following form of record of result of direct single measurement of size
Repeated ravnotochny measurements
Need for repeated supervision of some physical size arises at existence in the course of measurements of considerable casual errors.
The technique of statistical processing of results of supervision consists of the following operations:
1. Carry out supervision and fix results of supervision of the same value of physical size:;
2. Exclude known systematic errors;
3. Find average arithmetic value of the corrected results of supervision:
4. Calculate an assessment of an average quadratic deviation of results of supervision:
5. Calculate an assessment of an average quadratic deviation of result of measurement:
6. Calculate confidential borders of a casual component of an error of measurements which without a sign is determined by a formula:
where – factor Styyudenta.
For symmetric confidential borders of an error the result of measurement of size is represented in shape:
1. In what cases carry out repeated measurements?
2. List algorithms of processing of results of repeated supervision. 3. What criteria use for detection of rough errors?