Legal framework of metrological support 371
The metrological providing (MP) is understood as establishment and application of the scientific and organizational bases, technical means, rules and norms necessary for achievement of unity and the demanded accuracy measurement. The main tendency in development of metrological providing is transition from the existing earlier rather narrow problem of ensuring unity and the demanded accuracy of measurements to essentially new problem of ensuring quality of measurements.
Quality of measurements concept wider, than accuracy of measurements. It characterizes set of the SI properties providing in due time results of measurements with demanded by the accuracy (the size of the allowed errors), reliability, correctness, convergence and reproducibility. The concept "metrological providing" is applied, as a rule, in relation to measurements (test, control) in general. At the same time allow use of the term "metrological ensuring technological process (production, organization)", meaning at this MO of measurements (tests or control) in this process, production, the organization. Object of metrological providing are all stages of the life cycle (LC) of a product (production) or service. ZhTs is understood as set of the consecutive interconnected processes of creation and change of a condition of production from a formulation of initial requirements to it before the end of operation or consumption.
Metrological providing has four bases: scientific, organizational, standard and technical. Separate aspects of MO are considered in the recommendation of MI 2500-98 about metrological providing small enterprises. Development and carrying out actions of MO it is assigned to the metrological services (MS). Metrological service - the service created according to the legislation for performance of work on ensuring unity of measurements and implementation of metrological control and supervision.
Metrological providing at certification of production and services
Certification of production is activities for confirmation of compliance of production to the established requirements. The certificate of conformity – the document issued by rules of system of certification for confirmation of compliance to the certified production to the established requirements.
Certification, pursues some aims:
uniform commodity market and participation in international trade.
2. Assistance to consumers in a competent choice of production.
3. Protection of the consumer against the unfair supplier.
4. Control of safety of production for environment, life, health and property.
5. Confirmation of the indicators of quality of production declared by the manufacturer.
The basic essence of certification and services is that someone the third, being between the manufacturer and the consumer, independent of that and another, does the conclusion that the made production or service really conform to requirements to this production or service specified in concrete standard documentation. And the authority of the organization which issued the certificate is higher the trust to production on which this certificate is issued of June 10, 1993 "About certification of production and services" is more obligatory and voluntary certification is established. Obligatory certification is carried out in the cases provided by the legislation. Generally it belongs to control of safety of production for environment, life, health and property. In particular, in standards requirements to production concerning which the manufacturer of production when releasing has to have the certificate have to be considered.
Voluntary certification is carried out at the initiative of the enterprises and the organizations, and also certain citizens. It becomes for increase of prestige of products or the rendered services. The organization and work for certification is assigned by Gosstandart which forms and realizes a state policy on certification, establishes the general rules and recommendations about carrying out certification, carries out registration of systems of certification, publishes data on the operating systems.
One of the main participants of works on certification are test laboratories (centers) which carry directly out tests of concrete production and issue the test report for certification.
One of requirements imposed to the production supplied by the obligatory or voluntary certificate is existence of the introduced quality system. The fullest form of certification is production certification. Obtaining the certificate not on production or services, and the certificate – the document confirming means that the available productions provide production, corresponding to a certain normative document, for example, to the domestic or international standard.