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TEXT A. I am a law student. 1 страница  Просмотрен 862

The word "lawyer" describes a person officially qualified to act on certain legal matters. Most countries have different groups of lawyers responsible for doing particular jobs. In Japan lawyers can choose a job of a judge, an attorney, a public prosecutor. In England there are barristers and solicitors. In Ukraine lawyers work in courts, public prosecutor's officers, the Bars, militia, banks, industrial enterprises, etc. Although there are various kinds of legal professions (judges, barristers, investigators, court clerks), the most important feature characterizes them, i.e. their aim is to protect a person and property.

Now I am a student of Donetsk Law Institute of Ukraine's Ministry of Internal Affairs. I want to be a good lawyer so I work hard at various job-related subjects -different branches of law, criminology, and criminalistics. Besides I study many humanitarian subjects such as philosophy, psychology, professional ethics, foreign languages, etc.

The profession of a lawyer is of great popularity nowadays as people want to live in a society with the civilized relations between a state and citizens. 1 have no the slightest idea of the place of my future work - either it will be a court, or a prosecutor's office. But I understand quite well the responsibility of lawyer's profession, its profound moral meaning and intellectual potential. A law-governed state needs highly qualified lawyers to put the legal reforms into effect.

EXERCISES.

Ex.1. Прочитайте международные слова, определите их значение. Обратите внимание на ударения

'Person 'public in'dustrial crimi'nology

'Legal militia pro'fession humani'tartan

'Group 'bank characterize popularity

I'dea civi'lized 'moral intel'lectual

Po'tential quali'fied re'form ef'fect

 

Ex.2. Заполните таблицу пропущенными словами обозначенных чаcтей речи

A NOUN A VERB AN ADJECTIVE

То describe

public

An idea

To relate

legal

To characterize

A person

Ex.3. Найдите соответствия английских и русских выражений.

Legal matters Специальные предметы

То protect a person and property Отношения между государством и гражданами

То choose a job Жить в ооществе

То work hard Правовые вопросы

Job-related subjects Защищать личность и собственность

Branches of law Выбирать работу

To live in a society Правовое государство

Relations between a state and citizens Старательно работать

Law-governed state Отрасли права

 

Ex.4. Выберите правильное завершение предложения.

1. The word "lawyer" describes a person officially qualified.....

a) to punish a criminal, b) to act on certain legal matters, c) to make laws

2. Most countries have different groups of lawyers responsible for......

a) for controlling people, b) detecting crimes, c) doing particular jobs

3. A lawyer's aim is.........

a) to protect a person and property, b) to create laws, c) to govern the state

4. People want to live in a society with........

a) highly developed economy, b) the civilized relations between a state and citizens,

с) the great rate оf criminality.

5. A law-governed state needs

a) honest officials, b) qualified lawyers, c) well educated students.

Ex. 5. Закончите предложение.

1. Lawyer is a person officially qualified....... 2. Most countries have different groups of lawyers.......... 3. In Ukraine lawyers work......... 4. There are various kinds oflegal professions......... 5. The most important feature of a lawyer's profession is……… 6. I want to be a good lawyer so.......... 7. The profession of a lawyer is ofgreat popularity nowadays as.......... 8. A law-governed state needs highly qualified lawyers......... 9.1 study law............ 10. The student wants to be a good lawyer so …..

 

Ex.2. Отметьте звездочкой(*) правильные утверждения.

1. The law-governed state needs the highly qualified judges, barristers, investigators etc. (). 2. The aim of a lawyer is to check the economic development of the state. (). 3. In Ukraine lawyers work in courts, public prosecutor's officers, the Bars, militia, banks, industrial enterprises, etc. (). 4. There are various kinds of legal professions - judges, barristers, investigators, court clerks, etc. (). 5. The law student works hard at various job-related subjects - different branches of linguistics, the history of a language, etc. (). 6. Law students study many humanitarian subjects such as psychology, professional ethic, foreign languages, etc. as in future they will work with people.

(). 7. A lawyer's aim is to protect a person and property. ( ). 8. The profession of a lawyer is not very popular nowadays. (). 9. In Great Britain there are barristers and solicitors. ( ). 10. A law it an official practicing medicine (...).

 

Ex.7. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does the word "lawyer" mean? 2. What legal professions are there in Great Britain? 3. What profession can a lawyer in Japan choose? 4. Where do lawyers work in Ukraine? 5. What institute do you study? 6. What job-related subjects do the law students study? 7. Why do the law students study humanitarian subjects? 8. What is the aim of a lawyer? 9. What society do the people want to live? 10. Why does the law-governed state need the highly qualified lawyers?

Ех.8. Дайте краткое изложение текста, предварительно составив план.

 

TEXT B. Yaroslav the Wise National Law Academy of Ukraine.

Yaroslav the Wise national law academy of Ukraine is a higher legal education institution. Its history dates back to 1804, when due to the statute of Empreror Alexander I Kharkiv University was founded. In 1920 the faculty of law became an independent institute. In 1995 it was named after Yaroslav the Wise and got the status of National Law Academy with the highest accreditation level.

There are 31 departments in the Academy structure. The students study at 9 full-time faculties, 2 part-time faculties, an evening faculty and at the Prosecutors' Training Institute.

You may be given the admission to the Academy after completing full secondary education and passing the entrance examinations successfully. There are about 2000 full-time and 2000 part-time students each year. More than 15.000 students study here now.

The National Law Academy of Ukraine is the leading higher legal education provider of Ukraine, and is also the center of dissemination of scientific and research experience in the country. The academic staff members of the Academy participated in the development of the Constitution of Ukraine and the numerous important legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada and the Cabinet of Ministers.

The law library of the Academy has about 1.500.000 volumes of reference books, law reports and manuals. It provides the students with access to computer terminals with different online services, including Ukrainian legislation database.

All the students are guaranteed employment after graduation. But in order to become a judge, defence lawyer or notary public they are to pass an individual procedure after graduating from the Academy.

 

EXERCISES

Ex.1. Прочитайте международные слова, определите их значение. Обратите внимание на ударения.

A'cademy 'history accredi'tation 'Cabinet

'Institute de'partment exami'nation 'notary

'Faculty 'structure consti'tution indi'vidual

 

Ex.2. Найдите соответствия английских и русских выражений.

То date back Гарантировать занятость

То be founded Заканчивать вуз

highest accreditation level Студенты дневного и вечернего отделений

То complete full secondary education Обеспечить доступ к

To pass the entrance examinations Начинаться, восходить к истокам

То guarantee employment Члены академического состава

The academic staff members Наивысший уровень аккредитации

To provide the access to Сдать вступительные экзамены

To graduate from Завершить среднее образование

Fulltime and part-time students Быть основанным

 

Ex.3. Выберите правильное завершение предложения

1. Kharkiv University was founded........

a) due to the decision of the government, b) due to the statute of Emperor Alexander I, c) due to the Orange revolution

2. You may be given the admission to the Academy after.......

a) completing the secondary education, b) completing the dissertation, c) completing the special training in law.

3. The academic staff members of the Academy participated in.......

a) the development of the Constitution of the Soviet Union, b) the development of the EU Constitution, c) the development of the UA Constitution.

4. All the students are guaranteed........

a) the membership in the Parliament, b) participation in the work of the state bodies, c) employment after graduation

5. The law library provides the students with.......

a) fast food, b) access to computer terminals, c) financial support.

Ех.4. Отметьте звездочкой (*) правильные утверждение.

I. Yaroslav the Wise national law academy of Ukraine is a higher legal education institution (...) 2. Its history dates back to 1734. (...). 3. Emperor Peter I initiated Kharkiv University foundation. ( ). 4. National Law Academy has the second accreditation level. (). 5. There are 3 departments in the Academy structure. ( ). 6. The students study at 9 full-time faculties, 2 part-time faculties, an evening faculty and at the Prosecutors' Training Institute. ( ).

7. The academic staff members of the Academy participated in the development of the Constitution of the USA and the numerous important legal acts of the US Congress. (). 8. The library of the Academy provides the students with access to computer terminals with different online services, including Ukrainian legislation database. ( ). 9. AH the students are not guaranteed employment after graduation. ( ). 10. In order to become a judge, defense lawyer or notary public they are to pass an individual procedure after graduating from the Academy. (). 11. The law library of the Academy has about 1.500.000 volumes of reference books, law reports and manuals.

Ex.5. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is Yaroslav the Wise National Law Academy of Ukraine? 2. Whom was the Academy founded? 3. What year did the Law Faculty of Kharkiv University become an independent institute? 4. What was Yaroslav the Wise? 5. What is the accreditation level of the Academy? 6. How many departments are there in the academy? 7. What is the procedure of the admission to the Academy? 8. How many students of different categories study here? 9. Are the students guaranteed employment? 10. What work does the academic staff participate?

Ex.6. Дайте краткое изложение текста

 

TEXT С. St Mary's School of Law.

St. Mary's School of Law is located in San Antonio, which is a gateway to Mexico. It provides students with a broad understanding of global issues and the role І law plays in their peaceful resolution. In 1996, St. Mary's established a Master's Degree in International and Comparative Law. This program is designed for those who want specialised training in International and Comparative Law. The School provides tfct students going to represent business interests of their future clients in Latin America with a grounding in civil law and business law. There are special programs in other branches of law.

There are all necessary facilities to get one's knowledge in law: special lecture halls, a model courtroom in which moot-court competitions are held, spacious library etc. The Law School seeks to instill in its students a knowledge of, and loyalty to, principles that are the basis of any legal system. Knowledge of the law is essential to the education of a lawyer, but it is only a starting point The Law School seeks to impart to its students a clear understanding of the true function and aim of a legal system - the attainment of justice.

The practice of law is a profession committed to public service.

EXERCISES.

Ex.1. Прочитайте международные сяоеа, определите их значение. Обратите внимание на ударения.

'Role 'program 'system inter'national

Reso'lution 'basis 'function com'parative

Ex.2. Найдите соответствия английских и русских выражений.

Be located Получать знания

То provide with Наделять ясным пониманием

Peaceful resolution Располагаться

То get one's knowledge Достижение справедливости

To impart a clear understanding Обеспечить чем-либо

Attainments of justice Мирное разрешение (спора)

Ex.3. Выберите правильное завершение предложения

1. St. Mary's University Law School provides students.......

a) with a broad undemanding of global issues and their legal resolution, b) with access to computer terminals, c) financial support.

2. In 1996, St Mary’s established ……

a) a Bachelor Degree in Criminal Law, b) a Master's Degree in International and Comparative Law, c) a Master's Degree in Business Law.

3. In St Mary's University Law School there are all necessary facilities to brush one's knowledge...

a) in the history of state, b) in law, c) in psychology.

4. Knowledge of the law is essential to the education of.......

a) a historian, b) a sociologist, c) a lawyer.

5. St. Mary's School of Law is located in.......

a) Los Angeles, b) San Antonio, c) Boston.

Ex.4. Отметьте звездочкой (*) правильные утверждения

1. San Antonio where St. Mary's University is located is a gateway to Chili.( ). St. Mary's University Law School provides students with a broad understanding of global issues and their peaceful resolution. ( ). 3. There are special programs in various branches of law. (). 4. Knowledge of the law is essential to the education of a lawyer. ( ). 5.

There are no necessary facilities to get the knowledge in International and Comparative Law in St. Mary's University.

Ex. 5. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Where is St. Mary's School of Law located? 2. What does it provide the students with? 3. What degrees did it establish in 1996? 4. What facilities are therefor getting the knowledge in law? 5. What is the aim of a legal system?

Ex.6. Дайте краткое изложение текста

 

TEXT D. Donetsk Law Institute of MIA.

Donetsk Law Institute of MIA affiliated to Lugansk Law University of Ministry of Internal Affairs was founded in 1993. But its history dates back to 1960s when the special secondary school of militia was set up in Donbass region.

Now Donetsk Law Institute of MIA is one of the well-known higher education establishments in Ukraine. There are four faculties in the Institute – Faculty N1 "Criminal Militia" with three specializations (on economic security, on operative and detective work, on operative and detective work in the sphere of informational technologies). Faculty N2 "Militia of Public Security and Order'', Faculty N3 "The Expertise and Criminalistics",Faculty N4 "The Control and the Security of Road Traffic", Faculty N5 which proposes the postal tuition on two specialities - "Law Enforcement Activity" and "The Science of Law" There is a special unit in the institute requiring payment for tuition.

The cadets and the students have two terms academic process, pass exam session at the end of each term, and spend much time in the library preparing for lectures, seminars and practical classes. They have opportunities to practice their physical skills in the gym and the stadium as well as to practice the skills in shooting and driving.

Those who are interested in research work participate in the work of cadets' scientific groups. These groups organize scientific conferences; deliver the seminars on the actual problems of jurisprudence, etc. The most active members of the scientific groups may continue their research work after the Institute at the postgraduate courses.

There are about two thousand full-time students and cadets and more than one thousand correspondence students at the institute. The professors, lecturers and teachers do their best to train highly qualified specialists for various bodies of militia and justice.

Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. What is the official name of the Institute you study at? 2. When was it founded? 3. What years does the history of the Institute date back? 3. How many faculties are there in the Institute? 4. What specialists does each faculty train for? 5. What categories of cadets and students study here? 6. What categories of classes are there in the academic process? 7. What opportunities do the students and the cadets have to practice their theoretical knowledge and practical skills? 8. How do the students and cadets participate in the research work? 9.How many students and cadets study here? 10. What specialists does the Institute train?

 

Topical vocabulary.

Academic –.академический

Disseminate – распространять

Lecture – лекция

Represent – представлять

Accreditation – аккредитация

Education – образование

Legal – правовой, юридический

Research – исследовать

Act 1) акт, 2) действовать

Employment – занятость

Manual – учебник

Resolution – решение

Admission – принятие, доступ

Found – основать

Mаtter – вопрос

Responsibility – ответственность

Attainment – достижение

Full-time – стационарный

Militia – милиция

Scientific – научный

Attorney – адвокат

Guarantee – гарантировать

Notary – нотариат

Seminar – семинар

Ваr – коллегия адвокатов

Graduate – заканчивать

Participate – участвовать

Society – общество

Solicitor – поверенный в делах

Barrister – адвокат

High – высекши

Pass – принимать, сдавать

Branch – отрасль

Impart – наделять, сообщать

Procedure – процедура

Specialize – специализироваться

Citizen – гражданин

Include – включать

Prosecutor – обвинитель

Statute – статут

Civil – гражданский

Civilised – цивилизованный

Independent – независимый

Protect – защищать

Staff – штат сотрудников

Investigate – расследовать

Provide with – обеспечивать

Study – учить

Court – суд

Judge – судья

Psychology – психология

Subject – предмет, дисциплина

Complete – завершить

Justice – справедливость

Qualify – определять

Тrain – готовить

Criminology – криминология

Law – закон

Reference – рекомендация Volume – том

Date back – брать начало, восходить

Lawyer – юрист

Relation – отношение

 

UNIТ 2. UKRAINE AND ITS POLITICAL SYSTEM.

TEXT A. The Political System of Ukraine.

The political system of a society is 1) (as a complex of constitutional and legal institutes) a totality of norms, confirming the constitutional and legal status of a state as the definite political unit, as well as political parties, public and religious organizations and regulating the relations between the above mentioned bodies; 2) a totality of state and public organs and organizations by means of which the state power is exercised.

According to the theory of powers' division there are three of them - legislative, executive and judicial.

On the 24 of August 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. Nowadays Ukraine is a democratic law-governed state. The Ukrainian political system has a popularly elected President, a 450-persons single-chamber national Parliament – the Verkhovna Rada.

The President is the highest official of the Ukrainian state, vested with supreme executive authority. He exercises it through the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers and a system of central and local organs of state executive authorities. The President nominates the Prime Minister, who is to be approved by the Verkhovna Rada.

The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine is the body responsible for exercising law-making activity. It is the sole legislative authority. Its 450 members are elected by means of direct and secret voting for a four-year term. They elect the Head of the Verkhovna Rada, the Speaker. The functions and powers of the Verkhovna Rada are defined in the Constitution. They are the following: to amend the articles of the Constitution; to declare the Referendum; to pass the laws; to adopt the state budget; to define the foreign and domestic policy; to adopt the directions of economic, political, social and cultural development of the state; to ratify the treaties and agreements with other states, etc.

The judicial power in Ukraine is performed by the system of various courts. Its function is constitutional, administrative, civil, criminal etc. judicature in the form of examining and deciding certain cases. The judicial system in Ukraine consists of the Constitutional court, the common and appeal courts. The Supreme Court of Ukraine and the Supreme Arbitral Court of Ukraine are to control the legality of the trial decisions in the society.

EXERCISES

Ex.1. Прочитайте международные слова, определите их значение. Обратите внимание на ударения

Po'litical 'president 'article 'local 'secret

Demo'cratic 'minister decla'ration 'cultural rati'fy

Re'ligious 'cabinet 'form 'central 'arbitral

'Popular ap'peal admini'stration 'civil e'conomic

'National 'budget 'criminal

 

Ex.2. Найдите соответствия английских и русских выражений.

A totality of norms Всенародно избранный

Constitutional and legal institutes Принять бюджет

To confirm a status Принять закон

To regulate relations Прямое и тайное голосование

Law-governed society Ратифицировать договор

Popularly elected Законодательная власть

Executive authority Изменять конституцию

Legislative authority Совокупность норм

Judicial authority Подтверждать статус

Be approved Правовое общество

Law-making activity Регулировать отношения

Direct and secret voting Конституционные и правовые институты

To amend the Constitution Законотворческая деятельность

To adopt a budget Законность судебного решения

To pass a law Судебная власть

To ratify a treaty Исполнительная власть

Legality of trial decision Быть одобренным

 

Ex.3. Выберите правильное завершение предложения

1. Ukraine became an independent state.....

a) on the 26th of August, 1991, b) on the 24 of August 1992, с) on the 24th of August, 1992

2. The President is the highest official of the Ukrainian state, vested with........

а) supreme legislative authority, b) supreme executive authority, c) supreme judicial authority

3. The Verchovna Rada of Ukraine is the body responsible for exercising……..

a) law-making activity, b) penal functions, c) business administration.

4. The functions and powers of the Verkhovna Rada are defined

a) in the Constitution, b) in the law "On Verkhovna Rada", c) in the Criminal Code.

5. The judicial power in Ukraine is performed by

a) the system of various courts; b) the Government; c) by the Bars.

Ex.4 Отметьте звездочкой (*) правильные утверждения.

1 The political system of a society is a totality of state and public organs and §ІШ Kv means of which the state power is exercised. ( ). 2. On the 24 1 of ^niember 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. ( ). 3. Nowadays Ukraine is a constitutional monarchy governed by the king.

( ) 4. The Verkhovna Rada is the sole executive authority (). 5. The functions and powers of the Verkhovna Rada are defined in the Constitution. ()

Ex. 5. Ответьте на вопросы.

I. What is the political system of a society? 2. When did Ukraine become an independent state? 3. What powers is the President vested with? 4. Whom is the President responsible to nominate? 5. What is the Verkhovna Rada responsible for? 6. How many members are there in the Verkhovna Rada? 7. Whom do they elect? 8. What does the judicial system consist of? 9. What are the functions of the courts in Ukraine? 10. What do the Supreme Court of Ukraine and the Supreme Arbitral Court of Ukraine have the right to control?

Ex. 6: Дайте краткое изложение содержания текста.

 

TEXTS. CONSTITUTION

The word "Constitution" originates from Latin constitution which means "organization, arrangement". Constitution is a set of rules and practices that determine the composition and functions of the organs of central and local government in the state and regulate the relations between the individual and the state. Constitution is the highest legal form, which officially confirms values, institutions and norms of the constitutional system. Constitution is a sign of the statehood. Normally the Constitution is adopted by the Parliament.

There are two concepts of a Constitution - formal and legal. As for the legal one it is always the definite system of legal norms regulating certain social relations. As for the formal constitution it presents these relations in their actual functioning.

Due to the form the Constitutions are divided into codified, non-codified and mixed. The codified constitution is the written act dealing with all general matters of the constitutional character. If these matters are regulated by several written ads and statutes we are speaking about the non-codified constitution. The constitution И the mixed type includes parliamentary laws, trial precedents, as well as customs sari doctrine interpretations, i.e. it is partially written.

As tor the way to amend the constitutions they are divided into adaptable and rigid The first ones may be amended by means of adopting the certain law. The second category requires the special procedure based on the qualified majority of MPs or in the particular case – the Referendum for approving these amendments.

The constitutions may be divided into permanent and temporary due to the terms of their functioning.

EXERCISE

Ex.1. Прочитайте международные слова, определите их значение. Обратите внимание на ударения.

Compo'sition 'precedent refe'rendum

'Concept a'daptable 'permanent

Codi'fied 'complex 'base

Ex.2. Найдите соответствия английских и русских выражений.

Term of the functioning Квалифицированное большинство в парламенте

Trial precedents Писаные законы

Originate from Парламентские законы і

Doctrine interpretations Срока действия

Require the special procedure В особом случае

Qualified majority of MPs Судебные прецеденты

Written acts Происходить от

Parliamentary laws Требовать специальной процедуры

In the particular case Доктринальные толкования

Ex. 3. Выберите правильное завершение предложения

1. The word "Constitution" originates from Latin constіtutio, which means

a) "correction", b) ""organization", c) "evolution"

2. Constitution is the highest legal form, confirming

a) progress of the educational system b) artistic values, c) norms of the constitutional system,

3. There are two concepts of Constitution –

a) abstract and concrete, b) formal and legal, c) constant and temporary

4. Due to the form the Constitutions are divided into

a) three categories, b) two categories, c) five categories.

Ex.4 Ответьте звездочкой (*) правильные утверждения.

1. The word "Constitution" originates from Latin constitution which means "organization, arrangement" (.). 2. Constitution is a set of rules and practices dealing with the disputes between the individual and the state (.). 3. Constitution is a sign of the political tolerance (.). 4. There are three concepts of Constitution – formal, legal and educational (.). 5. Due to the form the Constitutions are divided into codified, non-codified and mixed.

Ex 5. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does the word "Constitution" originate from? 2. What does it mean? 3. Which matters does any constitution deal with? 4. What does a constitution state? 5. What does the legal form of a constitution define? 6. What categories of constitutions are there due to their forms? 7. How is it possible to amend a constitution? 8. What is the term of the constitution functioning?

Ex. 6: Дайте краткое изложение содержания текста

 

TEXT С. THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE: HISTORICAL ASPECT.

For the first time the idea of a Constitution appeared in Aristotle's classification of government. The modem idea of a Constitution came after the Reformation started by Luther in 1517. John Lock was the author of the American Declaration of Independence, the US Constitution and French Declaration of the Rights of a Man.

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