The paradigm of the verb in the present indefinite 243
|I speak He (she, it) speaks We speak You speak They speak||Do I speak? Does he (she, it) speak? Do we speak? Do you speak? Do they speak?||I do not (don’t) speak He (she, it) does not (doesn’t) speak We do not (don’t) speak You do not (don’t) speak They do not (don’t) speak|
|a)||Do I not speak? Does he (she, it) not speak? Do we not speak? Do you not speak? Do they not speak?||b)||Don’t I speak? Doesn’t he (she, it) speak? Don’t we speak? Don’t you speak? Don’t they speak?|
The auxiliary to do can occur in the affirmative form as well, if special emphasis is required. In this case the auxiliary is always stressed:
Ask him again, he ‘does know what it was.
She ‘does help me so much!
§ 18. There are some verbs that form their present indefinite in a different way.
1) The verb to be, which has synthetic forms not only for affirmative, but also for interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative structures. Besides, it distinguishes the category of number and has in the singular the category of person*.
* See the table on p. 339.
2) The verb to have when meaning to possess also builds its interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms synthetically.
When the verb to have has a modal meaning or when it is used as part of a phrase verb it makes its interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms in the ordinary way, that is with the auxiliary to do:
When do you have to get up in order to catch the first morning train?
She does not have any lunch at home.
3) All the modal verbs do not take the inflexion -s in the 3rd person singular. They form their interrogative and negative forms without the auxiliary to do.